词根 词根含义 来源 词源 同源词
ab-, a-, abs-away, off, away from, fromLatinab "away"; Latin a-, from a, short form of ab; ab is regularly used before all vowels and h; before consonants except h, (like m, p, v,) ab usually becomes a; before c, q, t, it becomes abs; cognate with Greek apo, from PIE root *apo- "off, away"abnormal, abrasion, absent, abstain, abstraction, aversion
acet-, aceto-vinegar, compounds from or related to acetic acidLatinacetum (acetus) "vinegar" (originally vinum acetum "wine turned sour"), originally past participle of acere "be sour," related to acer "sharp, pungent, bitter", from PIE root *ak- "sharp, pointed".acetic
acerb-harsh to the taste, sharp, bitter, sourLatinacerbus "harsh to the taste, sharp, bitter, sour", related to acer "sharp, pungent, bitter", (cf. Latin superbus "haughty," from super "above"), from PIE root *ak- "sharp, pointed".acerbic, exacerbate
acid-acid, sour, sharpLatinacidus "acid, sour, sharp," adjective of state from acere "be sour," related to acer "sharp, pungent, bitter", from PIE root *ak- "sharp, pointed".acidosis, acidulation
acr-height, summit, tipGreekἄκρος (ákros) "high", "extreme"acrobatics, acromegaly, acronym, acrophobia
acr-, acri-sharp, pungent, bitterLatinacer "sharp, pungent, bitter" (fem. acris, neut. acre), fr. PIE root *ak- "sharp,pointed" (cf. G. ake/akis "sharp,point,thorn," akros (see acr-/acro-), akantha (ake + antha/anthos "flower") "thorn,thorny plant," more to see acu-/acut-)acrid, acrimony
acu-, acut-sharpLatinacuere (pp. acutus "sharp, pointed") "sharpen," related to acus "needle", fr. PIE root *ak- "sharp,pointed" (cf. the rest of acr-/acri-, G. akme "summit,(highest) point," oxys "sharp,pointed, acid"; OE. ecg (old form of edge) "sword")acupuncture, acute
ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, al-, an-, ap-, ar-, as-, at-to, toward; addition toLatinad "to, toward"; expressing direction toward or addition to; ad- appears before a vowel and before the consonants d, h, j, m, v; it is simplified to a- before sc, sp, st.accept, adapt, affect, aggression, approximate
adip-fatLatinadeps, adipis "fat"adipose
aer-air, atmosphereGreekἀήρ (aēr) "air"aeronautics, aerosol
aesthet-feeling, sensationGreekaisthētikos "of sense perception" from αἰσθάνεσθαι (aisthanesthai) "to perceive"aesthetics, anaesthetic
agr-fieldGreekἀγρός (agros) "field"agronomy
agri-, -egri-fieldLatinager, agris "field, country"agriculture, peregrine
alb-whiteLatinalbusalbedo, albino, albumen
am-, amat-, amor-, amour-loveLatinamare (past participle amatus), amore, amor, amouramateur, amatory, amorous
amb-, ambi-, amph-, amphi-around, round, about, round about; both, on both sidesGreek or Latinambi, amphiambidexterity, ambivalent
amic-, -imic-friendLatinamicusamicable, inimical
amph-, amphi-around, about, both, on both sides of, both kindsGreekἀμφί (amphi) "on both sides"amphibian, amphibolic, amphoterism
ampl-large, spacious, abundant, bountifulLatinamplusamplification, ample
an-, a-not, withoutGreekGreek ἀν-/ἀ- "not"; a- used before a consonant, an- used before a vowel.anhydrous, atypical
ana-, an-up, upward, up to; back, backward; again, anew; against; on, upon, according to; exceedingly; throughoutGreekἀνά (ana)anabaptist, anaphylaxis, anion, anode
andr-, andro-, -anderman, male, masculineGreekaner (genitive andros) "man, male"androgen, android
anem-windGreekἄνεμος anemosanemometer
anim-life, breath, soul, mind, spirit; courage; temper, (hostile) feelingLatinanima, animusanimal, animation
ann-, anni-, annu-, -enn-, -enni-year, yearlyLatinannus (genitive anni) "year"anniversary, annual, biannual, millennium
ant-, anti-against, opposed to, opposite of, instead, preventiveGreekἀντί anti "against"antagonist, antibiotic, antipodes
ante-, anti-before, beforehand, in front of, prior to, previousLatinante "before"antebellum, antediluvian, anticipate, antiquarian
anth-, antho-flowerGreekἄνθος (anthos) "flower"anther, anthology
anthra-coalGreekἄνθραξ (anthraks)anthracite, anthrax
anthrop-, anthropo-man, human beingGreekanthropos "man, human being", which is perhaps a dialectical variant of *andropos, a compound of aner (genitive andros) "man" and ops (genitive opos) "eye, face", so literally "he who has the face of a man".anthropology, anthropomorphic
ap-, apo-, aph-from, away from, off, away, asunder, separateGreekἀπό (apo); cognate with Latin ab, from PIE root *apo- "off, away"aphelion, apocrine, apogee, apostasy
aqu-waterLatinaquaaquamarine, aquarium, aqueduct, aquifer
ar-plowLatinarare "plow" (cognate with ear "plow").arable, ear
ar-be dryLatinārēre "be dry or parched"arid
arch-, archi-, archo-chief, principal, leader, ruler, governmentGreekarkhos "leader, chief, ruler", from arkhe "beginning, origin, first place"; arkheinarchangel, architect
archa-, arche-, archae-, archeo-, archaeo-ancient, olden, primitive, primeval, from the beginning, beginning, firstGreekarkhaios "ancient," from arkhe "beginning"archaeology, archeology, archaic
arct-Relating to the North Pole or the region near it; relating to coldGreekἄρκτος arktos "bear"Arctic Ocean
argent-silverLatinargentumargent, Argentina
arist-excellenceGreekἀρετή, ἄριστος aretē, aristosaristocracy
arthr-, arthro-jointGreekarthron "joint", from PIE root *ar- "put things together, fit together, join"arthritis, arthropod
astr-, astro-star or celestial body; outer spaceGreekastro-, stem and comb. form of astron "star," related to aster "star"; In ancient Greek, aster typically was "a star" and astron mostly in plural, "the stars".asterisk, astrology, astronomy
athl-prizeGreekἄθλος (athlos) "contest, feat"athlete, pentathlon
-athroidgathered or lumped togetherGreekαθροίζω (athroidzo) "I gather together"Hypoathroid, epiathroid
audi-, audio-hearing, listening, soundLatinaudire "to hear"audible, auditorium, auditory
aug-, auct-grow, increaseLatinaugēre, auctus "to increase"augend, augmentation
aur-relating to gold, or gold-coloredLatinaurum "gold"aureate, aureole
auri-relating to the earLatinauris "ear"auricle
aut-, auto-, auth-self, one's own, by oneselfGreekαὐτός (autos) "self", "same"autarchy, autograph, automobile, autonomy
avi-birdLatinavisaviary, aviation
axi(o)-meritGreekἄξιος (axios) "worth"axiology, axiom
bac-rod-shapedLatinfrom baculum "rod"bacilla, bacteria
bar-, baro-, bari-weight, heavy, pressureGreekbaros, barysbarograph, barometer, barostat
basi-at the bottomGreekfrom βαίνω, I walk, march, βάσις "step"basic, basis
bathy-, batho-deep, depthGreekβαθύς (bathús, bathýs)batholith, bathymetry, bathyscaphe
be-, beat-blessLatinbeare, beatusbeatification
bell-, belli-warLatinbellum, belliantebellum, bellicose, belligerent
ben-good, wellLatinbene (adverb)benefit, benignity
bi-, bis-, bin-two, twice, double, doubly, once every twoLatinbis, "twice"; bini, "in twos"binary, binoculars, bigamy, biscotti
bib-, bibit-drinkLatinbibere, bibitusimbibe
bibl-bookGreekβιβλίον (biblíon) "book"bible, bibliography
bio-, -bi-lifeGreekβίος (bios) "life"biography, biologist, biology, biosphere
blenn-slimeGreekβλέννος (blennos)blennophobia, blennosperma
blast-germ, embryo, bud, cell with nucleusGreekβλασταίνω (blastainō), "I put forth shoots"blastula, fibroblast, osteoblast, sideroblast
bon-goodLatinbonusbonify, bonitary
bor-northLatin from Greekborealis "northern" from Βορέας (Boreas) "the north wind"borealis
botan-plantGreekβοτάνη, βότανον (botanē, botanon)botanic, botanist, botany
bov-cow, oxLatinbos, bovisbovine
brachi-, brachio-armGreekLatin brachium "arm", from Greek brakhion "arm," perhaps originally "upper arm," literally "shorter," and from brakhys "short" (see brief), in contrast to the longer forearm.brachial artery, brachiosaurus
brachy-shortGreekβραχύς (brakhús, brakhýs)brachycephaly, brachydactyly
brady-slowGreekβραδύς (bradús, bradýs)bradycardia
branchi-gillGreekβράγχιον (brágkhion, bránkhion)branchiopod, nudibranch
brev-, brevi-brief, short; shorten, make shorter, shortenedLatinbreve (genitive brevis), breviareabbreviation, brevity
brom-foodGreekβρῶμα (brōma)bromatium, bromatology
brom-oatsGreekβρόμος, βρόμη (brómos, brómē) "oats"brome, Bromus, Bromus ramosus
bromo-, brom-stench, stink, bad odorGreekbromos "stench"bromate, bromide, bromine
bronch-windpipeGreekβρόγχος (brógkhos, brónkhos)bronchiole, bronchitis, bronchus
bront-thunderGreekβροντή (brontē)Brontosaurus
bucc-cheek, mouth, cavityLatinbuccabuccal, buccinator muscle
bulb-bulbousLatinbulbusbulbous, bulbule
bulli-boil, seethe, bubbleLatinbullireebullient, ebullism
burs-pouch, purseLatinbursabursa, bursar, bursary, disburse
caco-, cac-, kako-, kak-bad, harsh, wrong, evil; incorrect; unpleasant; poorGreekkakos "bad, evil", considered by etymologists probably to be connected with PIE *kakka- "to defecate" (see caca).cacophony
cad-, -cid-, cas-fallLatincadere, casusaccident, cadence, case
caed-, -cid-, caes-, -cis-cutLatincaedere, caesuscaesura, incisor, scissors
calc-stoneLatin and Greekfrom Latin calx "lime", and from Greek χάλιξ (khalix) "pebble" "limestone"calcite, calcium, calculate, calculus
call-, calli-beautifulGreekfrom Greek κάλλος kallos "beauty"calligraphy
calor-heatLatincalor "heat"calorie
calyp-coverGreekκαλύπτειν (kaluptein)apocalypse
camer-vaultLatincamerabicameral, camera
camp-fieldLatincampus "field", "level ground"champion, campaign
can-dogLatincaniscanine, Canis Major
can-, -cin-, cant-, cent-, chant-sing, chantLatincanere "sing"; cantus, pp. of canere; cantare, frequ. of canerecantata, canto, cantor
cand-glowing, iridescentLatincandere "to be white or glisten"candela, candid, candle, candor, incandescent, incendiary, incense
cap-, -cip-, -cup-, capt-, -cept-, -ceiv-hold, take, catch, seize, graspLatincapere, captus "take or hold" (vowel changes from a to i in compounds)capture, captive, conception, recipient, occupy
capit-, cipit-headLatincaput (genitive capitis) "head"capital, decapitation, precipitation
capr-goatLatincaper, capriCapricorn, caprine
caps-box, caseLatincapsacapsule
carbo-coalLatincarbo, carboniscarbohydrate
carcer-jailLatincarcer, carcerareincarceration
carcin-cancer (disease)Latin from GreekLatin from Greek καρκίνος (karkinos) "crab"carcinogenic, carcinoma
cardi-relating to the heartGreekκαρδιά kardia "heart"cardiograph, cardiology
cardin-hingeLatincardo, cardiniscardinal
carn-, carni-fleshLatincaro (genitive carnis) "flesh"carnal, carnival, carnivore
carp-relating to fruitGreekκαρπός (karpos) "fruit"carpology
carp-relating to the wristGreekκαρπός (karpos) "wrist"carpal, carpal tunnel syndrome
cast-pureLatincastus "chaste"caste, castigate, castrate
cata-, cat-, cath-down, downward; intensive prefix, completely, entirely; against, wronglyGreekκατά (katá) "down"catabolic, catalyst, catastrophe, catatonia, cathode, cation, catapult, catachresis
caten-chainLatincatenacatenary, concatenation
cathar-pureGreekκαθαρός (katharos)catharsis
caus-, -cus-cause or motiveLatincausacausative
cav-hollowLatincavus "hollow"cave, cavity, excavation
ced-, cess-goLatincedere, cessusprocession, recede, secede
celer-quickLatinceler, celerareacceleration, celerity
cen-newGreekκαινός (kainos)Cenozoic
cen-emptyGreekκενός (kenos)cenotaph
cens-to assessLatincenserecensus
cent-hundredLatincentumcent, centennial, centurion
centen-hundred eachLatincentenicentenary
centesim-hundredthLatincentesimuscentesimal, centesimation
centr-centerGreekκέντρον (kéntron) "needle", "spur"eccentric
cephal-, cephalo-head, skull, brainGreekκεφαλή (kephale)cephalic, cephalopod, encephalogram
ceram-clayGreekκέραμος (keramos)ceramic
cerat-hornGreekκέρας, κέρατος (keras, keratos) "horn"keratin
cern-siftLatincernerediscern, secern
cervic-relating to the neck, relating to the cervixLatincervix, cervicis "neck"cervix, cervical
ceter-otherLatinceteruset cetera
chir-, chiro-, cheiro-, cheir-handGreekkheir (genitive kheiros) "the hand," from PIE *ghes- "hand"chiral, chiropractic, chiroptera
chelon-relating to a turtleGreekχελώνη (khelōne) "tortoise"chelonia
chlor-greenGreekχλωρός (khlōros) "green"chlorine, chlorophyll, chloroplast
chore-relating to danceGreekχορεία khoreia "dancing in unison" from χορός khoros "chorus"choreography
chord-, cord-cord, rope, stringLatin and Greekchorda, khordechordata, cord, cordillera
chrom-colorGreekχρῶμα (chrōma) "color"chromium, chromosome, monochrome
chron-timeGreekχρόνος (chronos)chronic, chronology, chronometer
chrys-, chryso-goldGreekkhrysos "gold"chrysolite, chrysalis
cili-eyelashLatinciliumcilia, supercilious
cine-motionGreekκινέω (kineō)cinema
ciner-ashesLatincinis (genitive cineris) "ashes"incineration
cing-, cinct-surround, encircle, girdLatincingere; cinctus, pp. of cingeresuccinct
circ-circle, ringLatincircuscircus, circular
circum-around, all around, on all sidesLatincircum "around, round about," literally "in a circle," cognate with circus "ring" (see circus). In French, the element became circon-; Kitchin points out that con for cum is common even in classical Latin.circumcise, circumference
cirr-orangeGreekκιρρός (kirros)cirrhosis
cirr-curl, tentacleLatincirruscirrus
clad-branchGreekκλάδος (klados)clade
clar-clearLatinclarus, clarareclarity, declaration
clast-brokenGreekκλαστός (klastos)iconoclast, osteoclast
claud-, clud-, claus-, clus-, clos-close, shutLatinclaudere (pp. clausus; -clusus, pp. of -cludere) "close, shut"clause, exclusion, include
clav-, clavi-key; bolt, bar; shut, lock, closeLatinclavisclavichord, clavicle, conclave
cl(e)ist-closedGreekκλειστός (kleistos)
cleithr-bar, keyGreekcleithrum
clement-mildLatinclemens, clementisclemency, inclement
clin-, clino-lean, slope, bend, inclineGreek or LatinLatin clinare (Greek klinein) "lean, slope, bend, incline", from PIE root *klei- "lean, incline"declination, incline
cochl-(snail/spiral) shellGreekκόχλος (kochlos)cochlea
coel-hollowGreekκοῖλος (koilos)blastocoel, coelom, spongocoel
cogn-knowLatincognoscere, cognituscognitive, cognizant, recognize
col-strainLatincolare, columcolander, coulee
color-colorLatincolorcoloration, coloratura, tricolor
con-, co-, col-, com-, cor-with, together, intensive prefixLatincom, cumcoagulate, collide, compress, connect, contain, corrode
con-coneGreekκῶνος (kōnos)conic, conical, conoid
contra-, contro-, contre-, counter-, contr-against, in oppositionLatincontra; In French, it became contre- and passed into English as counter-.contradiction, contrast, contraception
copr-dungGreekκόπρος (kopros)coprolite, coprophagia, coprophilia
corac-ravenGreekκόραξ, κόρακος (korax, korakos)coracoid
cor-, cour-, cord-, cordi-heartLatincor, cordis, cor (genitive cordis)accord, cordial, core, courage
corn-horn, projecting point, cornerLatincornu (genitive cornus) "horn"cornea, cornucopia, unicorn
coron-, coroll-crown, wreath, garlandLatincorona, coronare; corolla "small garland, little crown", diminutive of coronacorona, coronation
corpor-bodyLatincorpus, corporiscorporation, corpse, corpuscle
cortic-barkLatincortex, corticiscorticosteriod
cosm-, cosmo-world, universe; order, good order, orderly arrangementGreekκόσμος (kosmos)cosmic, cosmonaut
cosmet-arrange, adorn, ornamentGreekkosmetos, from kosmein "arrange, adorn," from kosmos "order"cosmetics, cosmetology
cotyl-cupGreekκοτύλη (kotulē)cotyledon
-cracy, -cratgovernment, rule, authorityGreekκράτος (kratos)democracy
crani-skullGreekκρανίον (kranion)cranium
cre-, creat-make, bring forth, produce, beget, createLatincreare, creatus; creatus, past participle of crearecreation, creature, procreant
cred-believe, trustLatincredere, credituscredentials, credibility, creditor, incredible
crep-, crepit-, crev-crack, creakLatincrepitare "crackle," frequentative of crepare "crack, creak"crepitation, discrepancy, crevice
cribr-sieveLatincribrum, cribrarecribble, cribrate
cric-ringGreekκρίκος (krikos)cricoid
cris-, crit-judgeGreekκρίσις (crisis)crisis, critic
crisp-curledLatincrispuscrepe, crispate
cross-fringe, tasselGreekκροσσός (krossos)crossopterygii
cruc-, cruci-crossLatincrux, cruciscrucial, crucifix, crucify, excruciating
crur-leg, shankLatincrus, cruriscrural
crypt-hiddenGreekκρυπτός (kruptos)cryptic, cryptography
cten-combGreekκτείς, κτενός (kteis, ktenos)ctenophore
cub-cubeGreekκύβος (kubos)cubic, cuboid
cub-, cumb-, cubi-, cubit-lie, lie down, lie asleep, reclineLatincubare "lie, lie down, recline"; -cumbere (found only in compounds) "lie, lie down, recline", from or related to cubare.incubation, succuba
culp-blame, faultLatinculpaculpable, exculpate
cur-care forLatincura, curareaccurate, curator, cure
curr-, curs-runLatincurrere (pp. cursus) "run"concurrent, current, cursive
curv-bend, curveLatincurvare, curvus; from PIE root *ker- "turn, bend," (cf. Latin curvus "bent, curved," crispus "curly"; Greek kirkos "ring," koronos "curved")curvature
cuspid-lance, pointLatincuspis, cuspidisbicuspid
cut-skinLatincutiscutaneous, cuticle
cyan-blueGreekκυανός (kuanos)cyanide
cycl-circularGreekκύκλος (kuklos)bicycle, cycle, cyclone
cylind-rollGreekκύλινδρος (kulindros)cylinder
cyn-dogGreekκύων, κυνός (kuōn, kunos)cynology, cynosure
cyst-capsuleGreekκύστις (kustis)cystic
cyt-, cyto-cellGreekκύτος (kutos)cnidocyte, cytoplasm
dactylo-, dactyl-, dactylio-finger, toe, digitGreekdactylos, literally "finger" (also "toe")dactylology, pterodactyl
damn-, demn-damage, loss, injury, penalty, condemnLatindamnare "condemn", from damnum "damage, loss, injury, penalty"condemn, damnation, indemnify
de-down, down from, from, from among, away, out, off; down to the bottom, totally, entirely, completely; concerningLatindeletion, dementia, descend
deb-oweLatindebere, debitusdebit
deca-, dec-, deka-, dek-tenGreekδέκα deka, tendecagram, decahedron, decameter
decim-tenth partLatindecimus, tenth; from decem, tendecimal, decimate
delt-anything shaped like a ΔGreekδέλτα (delta)deltoid
dem-peopleGreekδῆμος (dēmos)demagogue, democracy
den-ten eachLatindenidenarius, denary
dendr-resembling a treeGreekδένδρον (dendron): akin to δρύς, drys, "tree"dendrite, dendrochronology
dens-thickLatindensuscondense, density
dent-toothLatindens, dentisdental, dentifrice, dentures
derm-skinGreekδέρμα (derma)dermis, epidermis, hypodermic
deuter-secondGreekδεύτερος (deuteros)Deuteronomy, deuterostome
dexter-, dextr-right hand (side), on the right hand (side); skillfulLatindexter (for *dexi-teros), 'on the right side (hand)' (lit. 'on the suitable or fitting side'); from Greek dexios, The Latin form is with the comparative suffix -ter; from PIE base *dek-, *dok-.dexterity, dextrose
dexi-rightGreekδεξιός, rightDexiarchia
di-two, double, twiceGreekGreek di-, from dis "twice," related to duo (see two).dicot, diode, dipole
di-, dia-through, throughout, across, thoroughly, entirelyGreekδιά (dia)dialysis, diameter, diagram
dic-, dict-say, speak, tell, declare, proclaim; show, prove, point outLatindicere, dictus, dicarecontradict, dictate, dictation, dictionary, edict, predict
dino-terrible, fearfully greatGreekδεινός (deinos)dinosaur
dipl-double; twofoldGreekδιπλός (diplos)diploid, diplosis
doc-, doct-, doctr-, docu-teach, show, cause to knowLatindocere, doctor; docere 'teach' (orig. 'cause somebody to receive something'); from PIE base *dek-, *dok- "take, receive, accept; acceptable, suitable, fitting, proper"docile, doctor, indoctrinate
dodec-twelveGreekδώδεκα (dodeka)dodecasyllabic
dox-, doxo-opinion, tenet; glory, praiseGreekdoxa, from dokein "appear, seem, think, seem good, believe"; from PIE base *dek-, *dok-.doxology, orthodox
don-give, give as a gift, present; giftLatindonare "give as a gift," from donum "gift"condone, donation
dorm-sleepLatindormiredormant, dormitory
duc-, duct-lead, bringLatindux, ducis, ducere, ductusabduction, conductor, introduction, production, reduction, deduction
dur-hardLatindurusdurable, duration, duress, endure, obdurate
dy-twoGreekδύο (duo)dyad
dyna-powerGreekδύναμαι (dunamai)dynamism, dynasty, dynamite
dys-bad, ill, abnormalGreekδυσ- (dus-), dys-dysentery, dysplasia, dystrophy
ec-outGreekἐκ (ek); typical form in English of Latin ex-, Greek ex-, ek- before consonants.eccentric
eccles-assembly, congregationAncient Greekἐκκλησία (ekklēsiā) from ἐκκαλέω (ekkaleō) "I summon" or "I call out"Ecclesiastes, ecclesiastical
eco-houseGreekοἶκος (oikos)ecology, economics, ecumenism
ecto-outsideGreekἐκτός (ektos)ectoderm
ed-, es-eatLatinedere, esusedible
ego-self, I (first person)Latin, Greekego, ἐγώegocentric
ego-, eg-goatGreekαἴξ (aix)egophony
elect-amberGreekἤλεκτρον (elektron)electron, electricity
em-, -eem, empt-take, buy, gain, obtain, procureLatinemere; -emere (past participle -emptus); (sumere (sum-, sumpt-) "take," from sub "under" + emere "take")exemption, preempt, redeem
emes-, emesi-, -emea, -emesis, eme-, emeto-, emet-, emeti-, -emeticvomitGreekemesis "vomiting," from emein "to vomit," from PIE *weme- "to spit, vomit" (see vomit)emesis, emetic
emul-striving to equal, rivalingLatinaemulus, aemulareemulator
en-, em-in, into; near, at, on, within; put in or on; cause to be, make; intensive prefixGreekἐν (en); assimilated to -p-, -b-, -m-, -l-, -r-; Also used with native elements to form verbs from nouns and adjectives; cognate with Latin in / in-.emphasis
encephalo-brainGreekἐγκέφαλος (enkephalos)encephalopathy
endo-insideGreekἔνδον (endon)endocrine, endocytosis
engy-narrowGreekἐγγύς (engys)
ennea-nineGreekἐννέα (ennea)ennead, enneagon, enneode
eo-, eos-, eoso-dawn, eastGreekἨώς/ἝωςEocene
ep-, epi-, eph-on, upon, above, over; in addition, in addition to, after, behind; to, toward, into; among; at, nearGreekἐπί (epi)epicenter, epitaph, epoch
epistem-knowledge or scienceGreekἐπιστήμη (epistēmē)epistemic
equ-, -iqu-, equi-equal, just, even, levelLatinaequus, aequi-equal, equivalence
equ-, equin-horseLatinequinus "pertaining to horse", from equus "horse"equestrian, equine
erg-workGreekέργον (ergon)ergonomics
err-strayLatinerrareaberration, errant
erythr-redGreekἐρυθρός (eruthros)erythrocyte
eso-withinGreekἔσω (esō)esoteric
eth-, etho-moral character, character, nature, disposition, habit, customGreekἦθος (ēthos)ethology
ethm-sieveGreekἠθμός (hethmos); ἤθειν (hethein)ethmoid
ethn-people, race, tribe, nationGreekἔθνος (ethnos)ethnarch, ethnic
etym-trueGreekἔτυμος (etumos)etymology
eu-well, goodGreekeus "good", eu "well", also "luckily, happily"euphoria, euthanasia
eur-wideGreekεὐρύς (eurus)Europe
ex-, exo-, e-, ef-, ec-, es-out, outside, away, out of, from, from within; upwards, completely, entirely, thoroughly; remove from, deprive of; without; formerLatinexexclude, extend, extrude, ex-wife
exo-outsideGreekἔξω (eksō)exoskeleton, exothermic
exter-, extra-outward, outside, on the outside, outer, of another country, foreign; without, exceptLatinexterus (feminine extera); extra, from exteraexterior
extrem-outermost, utmost, farthest, lastLatinextremusextremity, extremophile
f-, fari-, fat-, fac-, fant-, fanc-, fand-, fess-speak, say, tellLatinfari, fatus, fatum, fandus; fans, present participle of fari; fateri (past participle fassus), -fiteri (past participle -fessus); from PIE root *bha- (2) "speak, tell, say"fate, infant, preface
fab-beanLatinfabafaba bean
fac-, fic-, fact-, fect-make, do, performLatinfacere, factusdefect, factory, manufacture
falc-sickleLatinfalx, falcisfalciform
fall-, -fell-, fals-deceiveLatinfallere, falsusfalsity, infallibility
fallac-falseLatinfallax, fallacisfallacy
famili-a close attendantLatinfamulusfamiliarity
fant-, phant-visible, appear, show, only image or picture, picture to oneself, imagineGreekphantos, phantazein, phantazesthai, from phainesthai, phaineinfantasy, fantastic, phantasm
fasc-bundle, bundle of woodLatinfascis "bundle of wood"fasciculation, fascism
fatu-foolish, uselessLatinfatuus "foolish"fatuous, infatuation
feder-league, alliance; treaty, pactLatinfoedus (genitive foederis), related to fides "faith"confederation, federal
fel-, feli-, felin-, felino-catLatinfeles (genitive felis) "cat, wild cat", felinusfeline
felic-, felici-, felicit-happy, fortunateLatinfelix (genitive felicis) "happy, fortunate, fruitful, fertile"felicity
femin-women, femaleLatinfeminafemininity
femor-thighLatinfemur, femorisfemoral
fend-, fens-strikeLatinfendere, -fensusdefend, offense
fer-carry, bear, bringLatinferrereference, transfer
feroc-fierceLatinferox, ferocisferocity
fet-stinkLatinfeterefetid, fetor
fid-, fide-, fidel-trust, faithLatinfidere "trust"; fidare "trust," from fidus "faithful," from fidem (nominative fides) "faith"; fidelis "faithful, true," from fides "faith"confidence, fidelity
fin-endLatinfinisfinal, finish
find-, fiss-, -fidsplitLatinfindere (past participle fissus) "split", from root *bheid- "split", cognate with Old English bite "act of biting," and bita "a piece bitten off" (see bite, bit); -fidus, from findere "split"fission, fissure
firm-firm, strongLatinfirmus, firmareconfirmation, firmament
fistul-hollow, tubeLatinfistulafistula
fl-, flat-blowLatinflare (pp. flatus) "blow", cognate with English blow.flatulence, inflation
flacc-flabbyLatinflaccus, flaccereflaccid
flect-, flex-bendLatinflectere, flexusflexible, flexile, flexor, inflection
flig-, flict-strikeLatinfligere, flictusconflict, inflict
flor-flowerLatinflos, florisfloral, florid
flu-, flux-flowLatinfluere; fluxus, pp. of fluereeffluent, fluency, influx
fod-, foss-digLatinfodere, fossusfossil
font-springLatinfons, fontisfont, fontal, fontanelle
for-bore, drillLatinforare, foratusforalite, foramen, foraminifer, perforation
form-shapeLatinformaconformity, deformity, formation, reformatory
fornic-vaultLatinfornix, fornicisfornication
fove-shallow round depressionLatinfoveafovea
frang-, fring-, fract-, frag-, -frainbreakLatinfrangere (pp. fractus; -fractus, pp. of -fringere; -fraindre, Old French variant of -frangere) "break," cognate with English break, from PIE root *bhreg- "break".fracture, fragment, frangible, infringe
frater-, fratr-brotherLatinfraterfraternity
fric-, frict-rubLatinfricare, frictusdentifrice, friction
frig-coldLatinfrigerefrigid, frigorific
front-foreheadLatinfrons, frontisconfront, frontage, frontal
fruct-, frug-fruitLatinfrux, fructisfructose
fug-, fugit-fleeLatinfugerecentrifuge, fugitive, refuge
fum-smokeLatinfumusfume, fumigation
fund-, found-bottom, foundation, baseLatinfundusfundamentalism, profundity
fund-, fus-pour, meltLatinfundere (pp. fusus) "pour, melt," from root *gheu- "pour" (cf. Greek khein "pour," khymos "juice"; Old English geotan "pour")diffusion, effusion
fung-, funct-doLatinfungi, functusfunction, fungibility
fur-, furt-stealLatinfur, furarefurtive
galact-milkGreekγάλα, γαλακτός (gala, galaktos)galactic
gastr-, gastro-stomach, bellyGreekgaster (genitive gastros) "belly, stomach", by dissimilation from *graster, literally "eater, devourer," from gran "gnaw, eat," from PIE root *gras- "devour"gastric, gastroenterology
geo-earthGreekgeo-, comb. form of ge "earth" (see Gaia)geography, geology, geometry
gel-, gelat-icy cold, freeze, jellLatingelum, gelare (pp. gelatus) "freeze, jell"gelatin, gelid
gen-, gener-race, kind; birth, produce, beget; descent, originGreek or Latinγένος (genos); genus (genitive generis), generareeugenics, genocide
ger-, gest-bear, carry, bring; behave, act, do, wage, performLatingerere, gestusdigest, gestation, gest
germin-, germ-sprout, budLatingermen (genitive germinis) "sprout, bud," dissimilated from PIE *gen(e)-men-, from root *gene- "give birth, beget"germination, germ
glia-glueGreekγλία (glia)glial
glob-sphereLatinglobusglobal, globule
glutin-glueLatingluten, glutinisagglutination
grad-, -gred-, gress-walk, step, goLatingradus, gradere, gressusgrade, regress
gramm-writingGreekγράμμα (gramma)grammar, grammatic
gran-grainLatingranumgranary, granite, granola, granule
grand-grandLatingrandisgrandiloquous, grandiosity
graph-, grapho-draw, write; record, descriptionGreekγραφή (graphē), grapheingrapheme, graphic, graphology
grat-thank, pleaseLatingratusgratitude, ingrate, grace
grav-heavyLatingravisaggravation, grave, gravity
greg-, gregi-flock, herdLatingrex (genitive gregis) "flock, herd," from PIE base *gre-g-, partial reduplication of base *gere-, *ger- "gather, gather together, assemble".egregious, gregarious, segregation
gubern-govern, pilotLatingubernaregubernatorial
gust-tasteLatingustus, gustare; from PIE root *geus- "taste, choose"; the root that forms words for "taste" in Greek and Latin, but mostly meaning "try" or "choose" in Germanic and Celtic.disgust, gusto
gutt-dropLatinguttagutta, guttifer, guttiform
gymn-nudeGreekγυμνός (gymnos)gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm
hab-, -hib-, habit-, -hibit-; habili-, habil-dwell, live; have, hold, possess; that which may be easily handled, suitable, fit, proper; clothe, dress, clothingLatinhabitus, habitare, habile, habilis, habere "to have, hold, possess; consider, think, reason; manage, keep," from PIE root *ghabh- "to seize, take, hold, have, give, receive" (see give, (h)able).habit, prohibition, able, ability
hadr-thickGreekἁδρός (hadros)hadron, hadrocodium
haem-, hem-bloodGreekαἷμα (haima)haemophilia, hemoglobin
hal-, halo-, hali-salt, seaGreekhals (genitive halos) "a lump of salt, salt generally," in Homer, "the sea," literally "salt", cognate with Latin sal (genitive salis) "salt"halogen, halite
hal-, hel-, halit-breatheLatinhalare (pp. halatus) "breathe", halitusanhelation, inhale, halitosis
hapl-simple, singleGreekἁπλοῦς (haplous)haploid, haplotype
haur-, haust-drawLatinhaurire, haustusexhaustion
hedo-pleasureGreekἡδονή (hēdonē)hedonism
hel-, heli-, helio-sunGreekhelios "sun"heliocentric, heliotrope, helium
hemi-halfGreekἥμισυς (hēmisus)hemicycle, hemisphere
hen-oneGreekἕν (hen)henad, hyphen
hendec-elevenGreekἕνδεκα (hendeka)hendecagon
hept-sevenGreekἑπτά (hepta)heptagon, heptathlon, heptode
her-, hes-clingLatinhaerere, haesusadhesive, coherent
herb-grassLatinherbaherbal, herbicide
hered-heirLatinheres, heredisheredity
herp-creepGreekἕρπω, ἕρπειν (herpō, herpein)herpes, herpetology
heter-, hetero-different, otherGreekἕτερος (heteros)heterodoxy, heterogenous, heterochromatin
heur-findGreekεὑρίσκω (heuriskō)heuristic
hex-sixGreekἕξ (hex)hexagon, hexahedron, hexode
hier-, hiero-sacred, holyGreekἱερός (hieros)hierarchy, hieroglyphics
hipp-, hippo-horseGreekhippos "horse"hippodrome, hippopotamus
hirsut-hairyLatinhirtus, hirsutushirsute
hispid-bristlyLatinhispidushispidity, hispidulous
histri-actorLatinhistrio, histrionishistrionic
hod-, od-way, a going, a traveling, journeyGreekhodoscathode, herpolhode, hodometer
hol-, holo-whole, entire, completeGreekholos "whole, entire, complete," from PIE root *sol- "whole"holistic, holography
hom-, homo-, homeo-, homoi-same, the same, equal, even, like, similar, one and the same, belonging to two or more jointlyGreekὁμός (homos), homio-, homoioshomophone, homozygous, homoiousian, homeopath
homal-even, flatGreekὁμαλός (homalos)anomalous
home-likeGreekὅμοιος (homoios)homeostasis
homin-humanLatinhomo, hominishominid
honor-esteemLatinhonos, honorishonorable, honorarium
hor-boundaryGreekὅρος (horos)aphorism, horizon
hor-, horo-hour, timeGreekὥρα (hōra)horoscope, horology, hour
horm-that which excitesGreekὁρμή (hormē)hormone
hort-gardenLatinhortus, hortihorticulture
hospit-hostLatinhospes, hospitishospital, hospitality, inhospitable, hospice
hum-earth, ground, soilLatinhumus, humareexhumation, inhume, humus
hyal-glassGreekὕαλος (hualos)hyaline, hyaloid
hydr-, hydro-waterGreekὕδωρ (hudōr), hydro-, hydorhydraulics, hydrology, hydrolysis, hydrophily, hydrophobia, hydroponic, hydrous
hygr-wetGreekὑγρός (hugros)hygrometer
hyo-U-shapedGreekὑοειδής (huoeidēs)hyoid
hyp-, hypo-under, beneathGreekὑπό (hupo/hypo), from PIE base *upo-; In chemistry, indicating a lesser oxidation.hypothermia
hyper-above, overGreekὑπέρ (huper)hyperbole, hypertonic
hypn-, hypno-sleepGreekὕπνος (hupnos)hypnosis
hyster-laterGreekὕστερος (husteros)hysteresis
ichthy-fishGreekἰχθύς (ichthus)ichthyology
icos-twentyGreekεἴκοσι (eikosi)icosagon, icosahedron
id-shapeGreekεἶδος (eidos)idol
ide-idea; thoughtGreekιδέα (ideal)ideogram, ideology
idi-personalGreekἴδιος (idios)idiom, idiosyncrasy, idiot
ign-fireLatinignisigneous, ignition
in- (1), il-, im-, ir-into, in, on, uponLatininimport, incur, intend, invite
in- (2), il-, im-, ir-not, opposite of, without, un- (negation)Latinin-illicit, impossible, inimical, irrational
infra-below, underLatininfrainfrastructure
insul-islandLatininsulainsular, insulation
inter-, enter-, entre-among, betweenLatininter (preposition); Spelled entre- in French, most words borrowed into English in that form were re-spelled 16c. to conform with Latin except entertain, enterprise.intercollegiate, intermission, intersection, entertain, enterprise
intra-within, inside, on the insideLatinintra, Commonly opposed to extra-intramural
irasc-, irat-angryLatiniratus, past participle of irasci "be angry," from ira "anger" (see ire).irascible, irate, ire
is-, iso-equal, the sameGreekἴσος (isos)isometric, isomorphic, isotropic
iter-againLatiniterum, iterareiteration
itiner-route, wayLatiniter, itineris – march, journeyitinerary
jac-lieLatinjacēre "to be thrown"adjacent
jac-, -ject-cast, throwLatiniacere, iectusejaculate, eject, reject, interject, trajectory
judic-, judici-judgeLatiniudicare "judge", from iudex (genitive iudicis) "judge", compound of ius "right, law" + root of dicere "say, speak"adjudicate, judicial
jug-yokeLatinjugare, jugumconjugal, subjugate
jung-, junct-joinLatinjungere, junctusconjunction, juncture
ju-, jus-, jur-, juri-, juris-law, right, justice; swearLatinius, iuris, iurarejury, justice, abjure
juv-, jut-helpLatinjuvare, jutusadjutant
juven-young, youthLatinjuvenis (iuvenis) "young, youth", cognate with junior / iunior (comparative of juvenis / iuvenis) "younger".juvenile, rejuvenate
juxta-beside, near, close to, next toLatinjuxta, iuxta is a contraction of *iugista (adv.), superlative of adjective *iugos "closely connected," from stem of iugum "yoke," from iungere "join", from PIE *yeug- "join" (cf.G: zygon "yoke," zeugnyanai "join, unite;" OE: geoc "yoke")juxtaposition
kil(o)-thousandGreekχίλιοι (chilioi)kilobyte, kilogram, kilometer
kine-movement, motionGreekκινέω (kineō)kinesthetic, kinetic energy, telekinesis
klept-stealGreekκλέπτης (kleptēs)kleptomania, kleptoplasty
kudo-gloryGreekκῦδος (kudos)kudos
lab-, laps-slide, slipLatinlabi, lapsuselapse, relapse
labi-lipLatinlabia, labiaebilabial, labial
labor-workLatinlaborcollaboration, elaboration
lacer-tearLatinlacerare (pp. laceratus) "tear to pieces, mangle," figuratively, "to slander, censure, abuse," from lacer "torn, mangled," from PIE root *lek- "to rend, tear"laceration
lacrim-cry, tearsLatinlacrima "tear"lacrimal, lacrimous
lact-milkLatinlac, lactis, lactarelactate, lactation, lactose
lamin-, lamino-, lamina-, lamn- lamell-thin plate or layer or sliceLatinlamina "thin piece of metal or wood, thin slice, plate, leaf, layer"; lamella "thin, small plate," diminutive of laminalaminate, lamination
lamp-torchGreekλαμπάς lampaslamp
lapid-stoneLatinlapis, lapidislapidary
larv-ghost, maskLatinlarvalarva, larvae, larval
lat-broad, wideLatinlatuslatitude
later-sideLatinlatus, laterisbilateral
laud-, laus-praiseLatinlauderelaud, laudanum
lav-washLatinlavare (pp. lavatus) "wash", cognate with Latin luere "wash"lavatory
lax-loose, loosen, slack, slacken, open, make wide, undoLatinlaxus, laxarelaxative, relaxation
lecith-egg yolkGreekλέκιθος lekithoslecithin
led-, les-hurtLatinlaedere, laesuslesion
leg-, legi-, legis-, legitim-lawLatinlex (genitive legis) "law," possibly related to legere "gather," on notion of "a collection of rules"legal, legislative
leg-send, depute, send as a deputy, send with a commission, bequeathLatinlegare "send as a deputy, send with a commission, bequeath," from lex (genitive legis) "contract, law"relegate
lei-smoothGreekλεῖος leiosleiomyoma
lekan-dish, potGreekλεκάνη lekanelekane
leni-, len-mild, gentle, calm, softLatinlenire "to soften, alleviate, mitigate, allay, calm," from lenis "mild, gentle, calm"leniency
leon-lionLatinleo, leonisLeo, leonine, Leopold
lep-, lepido-, lepid-, lepo-, -lepis, lepro-, lepr-flake, scaleGreeklepis (genitive lepidos) "(fish) scale" (related to lepein "to peel," from PIE root *lep- "to peel, scale" (see leaf (n.)), see leper); lepra "leprosy," from fem. of lepros (adj.) "scaly"Lepidoptera, lepidosis
leps-grasp, seizeGreekλῆψις lepsisepilepsy
leuc-, leuk-whiteGreekλευκός leukosleucocyte
lev-, levi-, liev-light in weight, not heavy; lighten, raise, lift upLatinlevare "raise," from levis "light" in weight, from PIE root *legwh- "light, having little weight; easy, agile"elevator, levitation
liber-freeLatinliber, liberareliberation, liberty
libr-bookLatinliber, librilibrarian, library
lig-, liga-, ligat-bind, tieLatinligare (past participle ligatus) "bind, tie"ligament, ligature
limac-slugLatinlimax, limacislimacoid, limacon
lin-lineLatinlinealine, linearity
lingu-language, tongueLatinlinguabilingual, linguistic
linqu-, lict-leaveLatinlinquere, lictusrelict, relinquish
lip-fatGreekλίπος liposlipolysis
liter-letterLatinlitteraalliteration, illiterate, literacy, literal, obliterate
lith-, litho-, -litestone, rockGreekλίθος (lithos); French -lite, variant of -lithelithosphere, megalith, monolith, Neolithic Era, oolite
loc-, loco-placeLatinlocare (pp. locatus) "place", loco "from a place" (ablative of locus "place")local, location
log-, logo-ratio, proportion; word, speech, say, speak, discourse, thought, idea, account, reason; count, reckonGreekλόγος logoslogic, monologue, morphological, philology
long-longLatinlonguselongate, longitude
loqu-, locut-, loqui-speakLatinloqui (pp. locutus) "speak"allocution, eloquence
luc-bright, shine, lightLatinlucere, lux (genitive lucis)Lucifer (bearer of light)
lud-, lus-playLatinludere, lususallude, illusion
lumin-lightLatinlumen (genitive luminis) "light," related to lucere "shine"illumination, luminous
lun-moonLatinlunalunar, lunatic
lysisdissolvingGreekλύσις (lusis)analysis, cytolysis, hydrolysis
macr-, macro-long, large, abnormally large, on a large scaleGreekμακρός (makros)macron
magn-great, largeLatinmagnusmagnanimous, magnificent, magnitude
maj-greaterLatinmajor, majusmajesty, majority, majuscule
mal-, male-, mali-bad, badly, ill, poorly, wrong, wrongly, evil, wretchedLatinmale, malus (fem. mala, neuter malum)malfeasance, malicious, malignancy, malodorous
mamm-, mammo-breastLatinmammamammal, mammary gland
man-flowLatinmānāre, manatusemanate, emanationism, immanant, immanation
man-stayLatinmanēre, mansusimmanence, immanent, manse, permanence, permanent, remanence, remanent
mand-orderLatinmandāre, mandatusmandate, remand
maniamental illnessGreekμανία (manίā)kleptomania, maniac
man-, manu-handLatinmanusmanual, manuscript, manufacture
mar-seaLatinmare, marismarine, maritime
mater-, matr-, matri-motherLatinmater, matrismaternity, matriarch, matrix
medi-, -midi-middleLatinmedius, mediaremedian, medieval
meg-, mega-, megal-, megalo-great, large; one millionGreekμέγας (megas), (fem. megale), (genitive megalou)megaphone, megawatt, acromegaly, megalomania
mei-lessGreekμεῖον (meiōn)meiosis
melan-black, darkGreekμέλας (melas)Melanesia, melanoma
mell-honeyLatinmel, mellismellifluous
mening-membraneGreekμήνιγξ (meninx)meningitis
men-, meno-monthGreekmen (genitive menos) "month"menopause
menstru-monthlyLatinmenstruus (mens-truus) "monthly," from mensis "month"menstrual, menstruation
ment-mindLatinmens, mentisdemented, mentality
mer-partGreekμέρος (meros)polymer
merc-reward, wages, hireLatinmerx, mercismercantile, mercenary, merchant
merg-, mers-dip, sink, plungeLatinmergere; -mergere (past participle -mersus)emerge, immersion
meso-, mes-, mesi-middle, intermediate; close to a center line; betweenGreekmesos "middle, in the middle; middling, moderate; between" (see medial (adj.)).mesolithic, mesozoic
meter-, metr-measureGreekμέτρον (metron)metric, thermometer
meta-above, among, beyondGreekμετά (meta)metaphor, metaphysics
micr-, micro-small; microscopic; one millionthGreekμικρός (mikros)microphone, microscope
migr-wanderLatinmigrareemigrant, migrate
milit-soldierLatinmiles, militismilitary, militia
mill-thousandLatinmillemillennium, million
millen-thousand eachLatinmillenimillenary
mim-imitator, mimic, mimeGreekμίμος (mimos)mime, mimic
min-jut, jut out, projectLatinminere "jut out, project" related to mons "hill" (see mount, montem (nominative mons) "mountain," from PIE root *men- "jut, jut out, stand out, project")prominent
min-less, smallerLatinminor, minusminority, minuscule, minutiae
mir-wonder, amazementLatinmiror, mirari, miratus sumadmire, miracle, mirror
mis-, miso-hate, hater, hatredGreekμῖσος (misos), miseinmisandry, misogyny, misogamy
misce-, mixt-mixLatinmiscere, mixtusmiscellaneous, mixture
mit-threadGreekμίτος (mitos)mitochondrion, mitosis
mitt-, miss-, -mitsend, let goLatinmittere; missus, pp. of mittereintermittent, missionary, transmission
mne-memoryGreekμνήμη (mnēmē)amnesia, mnemonic
mol-grindLatinmola, molere, molitusmolar
moll-softLatinmollisemollient, mollify
mon-, mono-one, single, alone, onlyGreekμόνος (monos)monism, monolith, monotone
monil-string of beadsLatinmonileMoniliformida
mont-, mount-mountainLatinmons, montisMontana
mord-biteLatinmordere, morsusmordacious, morsel, remorse
morph-form, shapeGreekμορφή (morphē)anthropomorphism, morpheme, morphology
mort-, mortu-deathLatinmors (genitive mortis) "death"; mortuus "dead", past participle of mori "die"; from PIE root *mer- "die, wither, quench, extinguish; wear away, rub away, harm"immortal, mortality, mortuary
mov-, mot-move, motionLatinmovere, motusmobile, momentum, motor, move
mulg-, muls-milkLatinmulgereemulsion
mult-many, muchLatinmultusmultiple, multiplex, multitude
mur-wallLatinmurus (genitive muralis)immured, mural
mus-thiefLatinmus, murismouse
musc-flyLatinmusca, muscaeMuscicapidae, Muscidae
my-mouseGreekμῦς (mus)musophobia
myri-countless, ten thousandGreekμυρίος (murios)myriad, myriapod
myrmec-antGreekμύρμηξ (murmēx)myrmecoid, Myrmidons
myth-storyGreekμῦθος (muthos)mythic, mythology
myx-, myxo-slime, mucusGreekmyxa "mucus; lamp wick" (see mucus).Myxini, myxoma
myz-suckGreekμυζάω (muzaō)Myzopoda
narc-numbGreekνάρκη (narkē)narcosis, narcotic
nasc-, naiss-, nat-, gnat-, gn-born, be bornLatinnatus, past participle of nasci "be born" (Old Latin gnasci); gnatus, past participle of gnasci, older form of nasci; gn- is the root of gnasci "be born"nascent, native
naut-sailorGreeknautes "sailor," from naus "ship," from PIE *nau- "boat"Argonaut, astronaut
nav-, nau-, naus-shipLatin and Greeknavis, naus; from PIE *nau- "boat"naval, naufragous
ne-newGreekνέος (neos)neologism
necr-deadGreekνεκρός (nekros)necrophobia
nect-swimmingGreekνηκτός (nēktos)nectopod
nect-, nex-join, tieLatinnectere, nexusconnect, nexus
neg-say noLatinnegarenegative
nema-hairGreekνῆμα (nēma)nematode
nemor-grove, woodsLatinnemus, nemorisnemoral
nephr-kidneyGreekνεφρός (nephros)nephritis
nes-islandGreekνῆσος (nēsos)Polynesia
neur-nerveGreekνευρών (neurōn)neurology, neurosurgeon
noct-nightLatinnox, noctisnoctambulist, nocturnal
nod-knotLatinnodusnode, nodule
nom-arrangement, lawGreekνόμος (nomos)autonomous, taxonomy
nomad-those who let pasture herdsGreekνομάς, νομάδος (nomas, nomados)nomadic
nom-, nomi-, nomen-, nomin-, nomini-nameLatinnomen (genitive nominis) "name"; nomius, from nomen; from PIE *nomn- "name"nomination
nonagen-ninety eachLatinnonageninonagenary
not-letter, note, paperLatinnotareannotation, notable
noth-spuriousGreekνόθος (nothos)nothogenus
noto-back, southGreekνότος (notos)notochord
nov-nineLatinnovemNovember, novennial
nov-newLatinnovusinnovation, nova
noven-nine eachLatinnoveninovenary
nox-, noc-harmfulLatinnoxanoxious
nub-to marry, to wedLatinnubes, nubis, nubereconnubial, nubile
nuc-nutLatinnux (genitive nucis) "nut", cognate with English nut.nucleus
nuch-back of neckLatinnuchanuchal cord
nud-nakedLatinnudusdenude, nudity
nupti-pertaining to marriageLatinnuptialisnuptial
ob-, obs-, o-, oc-, of-, og-, op-, os-to, toward, toward to; against; across, over, upon; down; completely, intensive prefix; before, in front of; behind, after, at the back, backwardLatinobobstinate, obstreperous, occur, offend, omit, oppose, ostentatious
oct-eightGreekὀκτώ (oktō)octagon, octahedron, octode
oct-eightLatinoctōoctangular, octennial, octovir
octogen-eighty eachLatinoctogenioctogenary
octon-eight eachLatinoctonioctonary
ocul-eyeLatinoculus, oculareocular, oculus, ullage
hod-, od-way, a going, a traveling, journeyGreekhodosanode, diode, odometer, pentode, tetrode, triode
odon-, odont-toothGreekodon (genitive odontos) "tooth"odontology
oeco-houseGreekοἶκος (oikos)ecology
oed-swollenGreekοἴδημα (oidēma)oedema
oen-wineGreekοἶνος (oinos)oenology
oesophag-gulletGreekοἰσοφάγος (oisophagos)oesophagus
ogdo-eighthGreekὄγδοος (ogdoos)ogdoad
-oidlikeGreek-οειδής (-oeidēs)asteroid, mucoid, organoid
olecran-skull of elbowLatin from Greekὠλέκρανον (ōlekranon)olecranon
olig-, oligo-small, little, fewGreekὀλίγος (oligos)oligarchy
oliv-oliveLatinolivaolivaceous, olivary, olivette
oment-fat skinLatinomentumomental
omin-creepyLatinomen, ominisabominable, ominous
omm-eyeGreekὄμμα (omma)ommatidium
omni-allLatinomnisomnipotence, omnivore
omo-shoulderGreekὦμος omosomohyoid
omphal-navelGreekὀμφαλός (omphalos)omphalectomy
oner-burdenLatinonus (genitive oneris) "burden"exonerate, onerous
onym-, onom-, onomat-, onomas-nameGreekonyma, dialectal form of onoma "name"; onoma (genitive onomatos) "name"; onomazein from onoma; from PIE *nomn- "name"onomatopoeia
ont-existingGreekὄντος (ontos)ontogeny, ontology
onym-, onom-, onomat-, onomas-nameGreekonyma, dialectal form of onoma "name"; onoma (genitive onomatos) "name"; onomazein from onoma; from PIE *nomn- "name"antonym, pseudonym, synonym
oo-eggGreekᾠόν (oion)oocyte
op-, oper-workLatinopus (genitive operis) "work, labor, exertion" (source of Italian opera, French oeuvre), from PIE root *op- "work, produce in abundance"inoperable, opera
opercul-little coverLatinoperculum
ophi-snakeGreekὄφις (ophis)ophiophagy
ophthalm-eyeGreekὀφθαλμός (ophthalmos)ophthalmology
opisth-behindGreekὄπισθεν (opisthen)opisthosoma, opsimath
opoter-eitherGreekὁπότερος (hopoteros)
opt-, opto-, ops-seen, visible, sightGreekoptos "seen, visible," from ops (genitive opos) "eye" from PIE *okw- "see"optical
opt-chooseLatinoptareadopt, optional
or-mouthLatinos, orisoral, orator
orch-testicleGreekὄρχις (orchis)orchid
ordin-orderLatinōrdō, ordinisordinal, ordinary
organ-organ, instrument, toolGreekὄργανον (organon)organism
ori-, ort-easternLatinoriri, ortusorient
orn-decorateLatinōrnāreadorn, ornament, ornate
ornith-, ornitho-bird, birdsGreekὄρνις (ornis, ornithos)ornithology
orth-, ortho-straight, upright, rectangular, regular; right, true, correct, properGreekὀρθός (orthos)orthodontist, orthodoxy, orthosis
oscillo-, oscill-, oscillat-swing, vibrateLatinswing, vibrate; oscillare "swing," from oscillum "little face," literally "little mouth," from os (gen. oris) "mouth, face" (see oral)oscillation
oss-boneLatinos, ossisossification
osteo-boneGreekὀστοῦν (ostoun)osteoporosis
ostrac-shellGreekὄστρακον (ostrakon)ostracism
ot-earGreekοὖς, ωτός (ous, ōtos)otology
ov-, ovi-eggLatinovum, cognate with Greek oon, English eggoval, ovary, ovule
oxy-sharp, pointedGreekὀξύς (oxus)oxygen, oxymoron
pac-peaceLatinpax, pacispacifism
pachy-, pacho-, pach-thick, dense; large, massiveGreekpachys "thick, large, massive"pachydermata, Pachypodium
paed-childGreekπαῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos)paediatric
pal-stake, wooden postLatinpalusimpalement, pale
pale-, paleo-ancient, oldGreekπαλαιός (palaios)paleontology
palin-backGreekπάλιν (palin)palindrome
pall-, pal-be paleLatinpallerepallid, pallor, pale, appal
palustr-in marshesLatinpalusterpalustral
pan-, pam-, pant-, panto-allGreekpan-, combining form of pas (neuter pan, masculine and neuter genitive pantos) "all," from PIE *pant- "all"pandemic
pand-, pans-spread, stretchLatinpandere (past participle pansus) "spread, stretch", from PIE root *pete- "spread" (see pace, petal, patent, pan, fathom).expand, expansion
para-, par-beside, alongside, near; beyond; contrary, against; irregular, abnormalGreekπαρά (para)parallel, parameter
pariet-wallLatinparies, parietisparietal
part-, parti-divide, separate, distribute, share, partLatinpartire, partere, from pars (genitive partis)bipartite, partition
parthen-maidenGreekπαρθένος (parthenos)Parthenon, parthenogenesis
pasc-, past-feedLatinpascere, pastuspasture, repast
pass-pace, stepLatinpassuspass, compass, pace
passer-sparrowLatinpasserpasseriform, passerine
pat-be openLatinpaterepatent
path-, patho-, pathet-feeling, suffering, emotion; diseaseGreekpathos "feeling, suffering, disease"; pathetos, verbal adjective of pathein "suffer"; related to penthos "pain, grief, sorrow" (see nepenthe).pathetic, pathology
pati-, pass-suffer, endure, feelLatinpati, passio (from Late Latin use of passio to render Greek pathos.)passive, patience
pater-, patr-, patri-fatherGreekπατήρ, πατριά (patēr, patria)patriarch
pater-, patr-, patri-fatherLatinpater, patrispatrilocal
pauc-fewLatinpaucuspaucal, pauciloquent, paucity
pect-fixedGreekπηκτός (pēktos)pectic, pectin
pector-chestLatinpectus, pectorispectoral
pecu-, pecun-, pecul-, peculi-cattle, property in cattle; private property; money; particularLatinpecunia "money, property, wealth," from pecu "cattle, flock"; peculium "private property," literally "property in cattle" (in ancient times the most important form of property), from pecu "cattle, flock," related to pecus "cattle"pecuniary
ped-, pedo-, paed-, paedo-boy, childGreekπαῖς, παιδός (pais, paidos)pedagogy
ped-, pedi-footLatinpes (genitive pedis) "foot"; pedem (nominative pes) "foot"; cognate with Greek pos, Attic pous, genitive podospedal, quadruped
pell-, puls-, -peldrive, push, strike, beatLatinpellere (past participle pulsus)propellent, propulsor, repellent
pen-almostLatinpaenepeninsula, penultimate, penumbra
pend-, pens-hang, weigh, payLatinpendere (past participle pensus) "hang, weigh, pay"suspend
penn-, pinn-feather, wingLatinpenna and pinna "a feather, plume;" in plural "a wing;" also "a pinnacle; battlement" (see pin (n.))pennate, pinnate
pent-fiveGreekπέντε (pente)pentagon, pentode, pentagrid
pentecost-fiftiethGreekπεντηκοστός (pentēkostos)pentecostalism
pept-, peps-digestGreekπέσσειν, πεπτός (pessein, peptos); peptein, pepsispeptic, peptide, pepsin
per-, par-through, throughout; thoroughly; entirely, completely, utterlyLatinperperfection, permeate, persistence, pervade, pardon, parvenu
peran-across, beyondGreekπέραν (peran)
peri-around, round about, about, enclosingGreekπερί (peri)perimeter, peripheral, periscope
persic-peachGreekπερσικός (persikos)
pet-strive towardsLatinpetereappetite, competition
petr-rockGreekπέτρα (petra)petroglyph
phae-darkGreekφαιός (phaios)phaeomelanin
phag-eatGreekφαγεῖν (phagein)sarcophagus, phagocyte
phalang-close formation of troops, finger bonesGreekφάλαγξ, φάλαγγος (phalanx, phalangos)phalanges
phalar-having a patch of whiteGreekφάλαρος (phalāros)[1]phalarope
pharmac-drug, medicineGreekφάρμακον (pharmakon)pharmacy
phaner-visibleGreekφανερός (phaneros)phanerozoic
pher-, phor-carry, bear, bring, variant of fer-Greekphoros, phereinpheromone
phil-, philo-love, loving, fond of, interested in, tending to; friend, friendly, friendshipGreekphilos, phileinhydrophile, philosophy
phleg-heatGreekφλέγω (phlegō)phlegm, phlegmatics
phloe-tree barkGreekφλοιός (phloios)phlobaphene, phloem
phob-fearGreekφόβος (phobos)hydrophobia
phon-, phono-, phonet-sound, voiceGreekphonetos, phonein, phono-, phone "sound, voice," related to phanai "speak", from PIE root *bha- (2) "speak, say, tell"homophone, microphone, phonograph
pher-, phor-carry, bear, bring, variant of fer-Greekphoros, phereinmetaphor
phos-, phot-, photo-lightGreekphos (genitive photos) "light"; phos, contraction of phaos "light"phosphor, photograph
phragm-fenceGreekφράγμα (phragma)diaphragm
phren-diaphragm, mindGreekφρήν, φρενός (phrēn, phrenos)phrenetic, schizophrenia
phryn-toad, toad-likeGreekφρύνη (phrunē)Phrynobatrachus
phyl-tribeGreekφύλον (phulon)phylogenetics, phylum
phyll-leafGreekφύλλον (phullon)chlorophyll, phyllotaxis
phys-natureGreekφύσις (phusis)physics
physalid-bladderGreekφυσαλ(λ)ίς (phusal(l)is)physalis
phyt-plantGreekφυτόν (phuton)neophyte, phytoplankton
pic-pitchLatinpix, picis
pil-hairLatinpilusdepilatory, epilator
pin-drinkGreekπίνειν (pinein)pinocytosis
pin-pineLatinpinuspineal gland
ping-, pict-, picto-paintLatinpingere, pictusdepiction, picture
pir-pearLatinpiruspiriformis muscle
pisc-fishLatinpiscisPisces, piscivore
pis-peaGreekπίσος (pisos)
plac-plate, tabletGreekπλάξ, πλακός (plax, plakos)
plac-calmLatinplacare, placatusplacate, placid
plac-, pleas-please, give pleasureLatinplacere "please, give pleasure"placebo
plagi-obliqueGreekπλάγιος (plagios)plagioclase
plan-flatLatinplanusexplanation, planar, plane
plang-, planct-, -plain-, -plaint-, plag-beat, strike, lament (by beating the breast)Latinplangere, planctusplangent, complain
plas-mouldGreekπλάθω (plathō)plasma, plastic
platy-flat, broadGreekπλατύς (platus)platypus
plaud-, plaus-clap, clap the hands, applaud, agree or accept by clapping handsLatinplaudere (-plausus, pp. of -plaudere)applaud, applause
ple-, plet-, -plyfillLatinplere "fill"; -ply, from Old French -plier, from -plere (past participle -pletus)complement, suppletion
pleb-peopleLatinplebs, plebisplebian, plebs
plec-interwovenGreekπλέκω (plekō)plectics, symplectomorphism
plect-, plex-weave, braid, plait, twine, entwine, intertwine, entangle, foldLatinplectere (past participle plexus); from PIE root *plek- "plait, twist, fold"perplex, complex
plesi-nearGreekπλησίος (plēsios)
pleth-fullGreekπλῆθος (plēthos)plethora
pleur-sideGreekπλευρά (pleura)
plic-, plicat-, -plex, -plyfoldLatinplicare (past participle plicatus) "fold"; -ply, from Old French -plier, from Latin -plicare, from Latin -plex (genitive -plicis) "fold"; from PIE root *plek- "plait, twist, fold"duplication, replicate
plinth-brickGreekπλίνθος (plinthos)
plum-featherLatinplumaplumage, plumate
plut-wealthGreekπλοῦτος (ploutos)plutocracy
pneu-air, lungGreekπνεῦμα (pneuma)pneumatic
pod-footGreekπούς, ποδός (pous, podos)podiatry, tripod
pogon-beardGreekπώγων, πώγωνος (pōgōn, pōgōnos)pogonotrophy
poie-makeGreekποιέω (poieō)poiesis
pol-pole, end of an axisGreek or Latinπόλος (polos), polusdipole, polar
polit-, polis-, polic-citizen, city, state, civil administrationGreekπόλις (polis), politesmetropolis, politics, policy, police
polem-warGreekπόλεμος (polemos)polemic
poli-greyGreekπολιός (polios)poliomyelitis
pollic-thumbLatinpollex, pollicispollicate
pollin-fine flourLatinpollen, pollinispollination
poly-manyGreekπολύς (polus), polyspolygon
pon-, posit-, pos-, post-put, set, placeLatinponere, positus; Old French poser from positus; *postus contracted from posituscomponent, position, postpone
ponder-weightLatinpondus, ponderispreponderance
pont-bridgeLatinpons, pontispontoon
popul-peopleLatinpopulus, popularepopulation
por-passageGreekπόρος (poros)pore, porosity
porc-pigLatinporcusporcine, pork
porphyr-, purpur-purpleGreekπορφύρα (porphura), porphyra, porphyros, purpuraporphyrin, purpura, porphyry
port-carryLatinportare, portatusexport, transportation, portable
post-after, afterward, behindLatinpostposterior, postscript
pot-drinkLatinpotus, potarepotable
potam-, potamo-riverGreekpotamos "river"hippopotamus, Mesopotamia
prasin-leek-greenGreekπράσινος (prasinos)prasinous
pre-, prae-beforeLatinpraeprevious
prec-prayLatinprex, precis, precārideprecation
pred-preyLatinpraeda, praedaripredator
prehend-, prend-, prehens-graspLatinprehendere, prehensuscomprehend, prehensility
prem-, -prim-, press-press, pushLatinpremere, pressuspressure, compress
presby-oldGreekπρέσβυς (presbus)Presbyterianism
preter-pastLatinpraeterpreterite, pretermission
preti-priceLatinpretium, pretiare
prim-, prin-, primi-, primo-, prima-firstLatinprimus, primo, primaprimary, primeval, primitive
priv-, privi-one's own, individual; separate, deprive, privationLatinprivare "separate, deprive", from privus "one's own, individual"deprivation, privilege
pro-, por-, pur-before, in front of, forwardGreekπρό (pro)prologue, prostate
pro-, por-, pur-forward, forth, toward the front; beforehand, in advance; in place of, instead of, on behalf ofLatinproproclaim, proceed, prohibit, provide, procure, proconsul, pronoun
prob-worthy, goodLatinprobus, probareprobation
proct-anusGreekπρωκτός (prōktos)proctology
propri-one's own, ownershipLatinproprietasappropriate, property, propriety
pros-forwardGreekπρός (pros)prosenchyma, prosthesis
prot-, proto-first, originalGreekπρῶτος (prōtos)protoplasm
proxim-nearestLatinproximus, proximareapproximate, proximity
psamm-sandGreekψάμμος (psammos)psammite, psammophyte, psammosere, psammous
pseud-falseGreekψευδής (pseudēs)pseudonym
psil-bareGreekψιλός (psilos)epsilon
psych-mindGreekψυχή (psuchē)psycho, psychology
psychr-coldGreekψυχρός (psuchros)psychrometer
ptero-, pter-, -ptera, -pteron, -pteryx, -pteryfeather; wing, winglikeGreekπτερόν (pteron)helicopter, pterodactyl
pto-fallGreekπτῶσις (ptōsis)ptosis
ptyal-salivaGreekπτύον (ptuon)
ptych-fold, layerGreekπτύξ, πτυχή (ptuchē)triptych
pub-, puber-, pubert-grown up, adult, full-grown, sexually mature; hair that appears on the body at the age of puberty, the private parts, genital areaLatinpuber (gen. puberis) "grown up, adult, full-grown", pubes (gen. pubis) "hair that appears on the body at the age of puberty, the private parts, genital area", pubertispubescent, pubic
pude-shameLatinpudereimpudent, pudendum
pugn-fightLatinpugna, pugnarepugnacious, repugnant
pulchr-beautifulLatinpulcher, pulchripulchritude
pulmon-lungLatinpulmo, pulmonispulmonary
pulver-dustLatinpulvis, pulverispulverize
pung-, punct-prickLatinpungere, punctuspuncture, pungent
puni-punishLatinpunire, punitusimpunity, punitive
pup-dollLatinpupapupa, puppet
pur-pureLatinpurusimpurity, purify
purg-cleanse, make clean, purifyLatinpurgare "cleanse, make clean, purify", from Old Latin purigare, from purus "pure" + root of agere "drive, make"expurgate, purgatory, purge
put-cut, prune; reckon, think, count, considerLatinputare "reckon, think, count, consider," literally "cut, prune"; 引申义: 快刀斩乱麻,理清思路,修剪、修整、整理思路compute, putative
pyg-rumpGreekπυγή (pugē)pygostyle, callipygian
pyl-gateGreekπυλών, πυλῶνος (pulōn)pylon
pyr-heat, fireGreekπῦρ, πυρός (pur, puros)pyrolysis
quadr-fourLatinquattuorquadrangle, quadrillion
quadragen-forty eachLatinquadrageniquadragenary
quart-fourthLatinquartusquartary, quartile
quasi-as ifLatinquasiquasar
quatern-four eachLatinquaterniquaternary, quaternion
quati-, quass-shakeLatinquatere
quer-, -quir-, quesit-, -quisit-, quest-seek, search, look for; ask, inquire, require, demand; gain, seek to obtain, strive, endeavor, strive to gainLatinquaerere, quaesitus, questaInquisition, query
qui-restLatinquiesquiet, requiem
quin-five eachLatinquiniquinary
quinden-fifteen eachLatinquindeniquindenary
quint-fifthLatinquintusquintary, quintile
quot-how many, how greatLatinquotiensquota, quotient
rad-, ras-scrape, shaveLatinradere, rasusabrade, abrasion, erasure
radi-, radio-ray, ray-like; radial, radius; by means of radiant energy; radioactive; by radioLatinradius, radiareradiance, radiation
radic-rootLatinrādix, rādīciseradicate, radical
ram-branchLatinrāmusramification, ramose
ranc-rancidness, grudge, bitternessLatinrancererancid, rancor
rap-, rapt-, rapac-, rapaci-, rav-seize, plunder, seize by force, carry away by force, carry away suddenly or rapidlyLatinrapere (pp. raptus); rapax (genitive rapacis) "grasping, plundering," from rapere "seize"; Old French ravir, from rapere.rape, rapture, rapacity, ravish
raph-seamGreekῤαφή (rhaphē)
rauc-harsh, hoarseLatinraucusraucous
re-, red-back; again, anew, once more, repeatedly; opposite, against, away; intensive prefixLatinre-; red-, the -d- is from the Old Latin habit of using red- as the form of re- before vowels.recede, redact
reg-, -rig-, rect-keep straight, lead straight, straighten, guide, lead, rule, direct; straight, right, correctLatinregere; -rectus, past participle of -rigere or -regere; (compare Old English rice "kingdom," -ric "king," rice "rich, powerful," riht "correct")dirigible, erect, erection, rectum
rem-oarLatinremusbireme, trireme
rep-, rept-crawl, creepLatinrepere, reptusreptile
ret-netLatinretereticle, retina
retro-backward, behindLatinretroretrograde, retrospective, retrovirus
rhabd-rodGreekῥάβδος (rhabdos)rhabdoid, rhabdom
rhach-, rach-spineGreekῥάχις, ῥάχεως (rhachis)rhachiodont
rhag-tear, rentGreekῥαγίζωrhagades
rhe-flowGreekῥεῖν (rhein)rheostat
rhig-chillGreekῥῖγος (rhigos)rhigosaurus
rhin-nose, snoutGreekῥίς, ῥινός (rhis, rhinos)rhinoceros, rhinoplasty
rhiz-rootGreekῥίζα (rhiza)rhizome
rhod-roseGreekῥόδον (rhodon)rhododendron
rhomb-spinning topGreekῥόμβος (rhombos)rhombus
rid-, ris-laughLatinridere, risusderision, ridicule
robor-oak, strengthLatinrobur, roboriscorroboration
rod-, ros-gnawLatinrodere, rosuscorrode, erosion, rodent
rog-ask, ask for, request, proposeLatinrogare "ask, ask for, request, propose"derogatory, interrogation
rostr-beak, prowLatinrostrumrostral, rostriform, rostrum
rot-wheelLatinrota, rotarerotation, rotunda
ruber-, rubr-redLatinruberrubric, ruby
rug-wrinkleLatinruga, rugarecorrugation
rumin-throatLatinrumen, ruminisrumination
rump-, rupt-breakLatinrumpere, ruptuseruption, interrupt, rupture
rur-, ruri-, rus-, rust-country, farm, open land; of the country, simple; live in the countryLatinrus (genitive ruris) "open land, country"rural, rustic
sacchar-sugarLatinsaccharumsaccharin, saccharine, oligosaccharide
sacr-, secr-, sacri-, sacra-, sacro-, sacer-sacred, holy, devoteLatinsacrare, from sacer (genitive sacri); nasalized form is sancire (pp. sanctus) "make sacred, confirm, ratify, decree".consecrate, sacrament
sagac-wiseLatinsagax, sagacissagacity
sagitt-arrowLatinsagittasagittal plane, Sagittaria
sal-, sali-, salin-saltLatinsalinum "salt cellar" and salinae "salt pits," from sal (genitive salis) "salt", cognate with Greek hals (genitive halos) "salt, sea"salinity
sali-, -sili-, salt-jumpLatinsalire, saltusresilient, salient, saltus
salic-willowLatinsalix, salicissalicin
salv-safe, healthy, in good health; save, make safe, secureLatinsalvus, salvaresalvation
san-healthyLatinsanusinsane, sanity
sanc-holyLatinsancire, sanctussanctify, sanctuary
sanguin-bloodLatinsanguis (genitive sanguinis) "blood"consanguinity, sanguine
sapi-, -sipi-taste, wiseLatinsapereinsipience, sapient
sapon-soapLatinsapo, saponissaponification
sarc-, sarco-fleshGreeksarx (genitive sarkos) "flesh"sarcophagus, sarcasm
saur-lizard, reptileGreekσαῦρος (sauros)dinosaur
scab-, scabio-, scabi-scratch, scrape, scabbyLatinscabere "scratch, scrape"scabies
scal-ladder, stairsLatinscalascalar, scale
scalen-unevenGreekσκαληνός (skalēnos)scalene muscles, scalene triangle
scand-, -scend-, scans-, -scens-climbLatinscandereascend, transcendent, descend
scaph-anything hollow, bowl, shipGreekσκάφη, σκάφοςscaphoid bone
scel-leg, thighGreekσκέλος, σκέλεος (skelos)isosceles
schem-planGreekσχῆμα (schēma)schematic
schis-splitGreekσχίζω, σχίσμα (schisma)schism
sci-knowLatinscireprescient, science
scind-, sciss-cut, split, divideLatinscindere (*scissus, *scissa)rescind, scissors
scler-hardGreekσκληρός (sklēros)scleroderma, sclerosis
scoli-crookedGreekσκολιός (skolios)scoliosis
scop-, scept-, skept-look at, examine, view, observe, see, watchGreekσκέπτομαι, σκοπός (skopos), skeptesthaihoroscope, kaleidoscope, stethoscope
scrib-, script-writeLatinscribere (pp. scriptus) "write"inscribe, scripture
sculp-carveLatinsculpere, sculptussculpture
scyph-cupGreekσκύφος (skyphos)Scyphozoa
se-, sed-apart, aside, without, on one's ownLatinse-, sed-; from the preposition sed, se "without" and the conjunction sed "but"; from PIE reflexive base *swe-, *se (see self, suicide, Latin se "oneself" (genitive sui)).secede, sedition
sebo-, seb-, sebi-tallow, grease, animal fatLatinsebum "tallow, grease, animal fat," probably related to sapo "soap" (see soap).sebaceous, sebum
sec-, sect-, seg-cutLatinsecaresecant, section, segment
sed-settle, calmLatinsedare, sedatussedative
sed-, sid-, sidu-, sess-sitLatinsedere (-sessus, pp. of -sidere; adjective -siduus, formed from -sidere) "sit", from PIE root *sed- "sit"reside, sediment, session
seget-in cornfieldsLatinsegetum
sei-shakeGreekσείω, σεισμός (seismos)seismograph
selen-moonGreekseleneSelene, selenium
sell-saddle, seatLatinsellasella turcica
sema-signGreekσῆμα (sēma)semantics, semaphore
semin-seedLatinsemen (genitive seminis) "seed"insemination
sen-old manLatinsenex, senissenator, senility
sen-six eachLatinsenisenary
senti-, sens-, sent-feel, perceive, senseLatinsentire, sensusconsensus, sentient
sept-fence, partition, enclosureLatinsaeptumtransept
sept-, septi-, septem-sevenLatinseptemseptennial
septen-seven eachLatinsepteniseptenary
septim-seventhLatinseptimusseptimal, septime
septuagen-seventy eachLatinseptuageniseptuagenary
septuagesim-seventiethLatinseptuagesimusseptuagesima, septuagesimal
sequ-, secut-followLatinsequi, sequere, secutusconsecutive, sequence
ser-, sat-cultivateLatinserere, satussative
ser-body fluidLatinserumserous
ser-lateLatinserusserein, serotine
serp-crawl, creepLatinserpere, serptusserpent
serr-saw, saw-toothedLatinserra, serrareserration
serv-save, protect, serveLatinservareconservation
sesqui-one and a halfLatinsesquisesquicentennial
set-bristle, hairLatinsaetaseta, setose
sever-stern, strict, seriousLatinseverusseverity
sex-, se-sixLatinsexsemester, sexangle, sexennium
sexagen-sixty eachLatinsexagenisexagenary
sibil-hiss, whistleLatinsibilus, sibilare "to hiss, whistle," possibly of imitative origin.sibilance
sider-starLatinsidus, siderissidereal
sign-sign, markLatinsignumdesign, designate, signal
sil-quiet or stillLatinsileresilence
simi-ape, monkeyLatinsimiasimian
simil-like, similar; make like, make similarLatinsimilis, similare, from Old Latin semol "together," from PIE root *sem-/*som- "same" (see same).assimilate, similarity
simul-imitate, simulate, make like; pretend; at the same timeLatinsimulare, simul; from similis; from Old Latin semol "together," from PIE root *sem-/*som- "same" (see same).simulation, dissimulate, simultaneous
singul-one eachLatinsingulussingular
sinistr-leftLatinsinister, sinistrisinistral
sin-, sinu-wind, bend, curveLatinsinuare "wind, bend, curve," from sinus "curve, fold, bend"insinuate, sine
sinus-hollow, bayLatinsinus
siph(o)-tubeGreekσίφων (siphōn)siphon
sist-cause to standLatinsistereconsist, persistence
sit-food, grain, wheatGreekσῖτος (sitos)sitology
soci-groupLatinsocius, sociareassociate, social
sol-sunLatinsol, solissolar
sol-comfort, sootheLatinsolariconsolation, solace
sol-, soli-, solit-aloneLatinsolus "alone", solare "make lonely"desolate, sole, solo, solipsism
solen-pipe, channelGreekσωλήν (sōlēn)solenoid
solv-, solut-loosen, set free, solveLatinsolvere (pp.solutus) "loosen, set free, solve"dissolve, solution
soma-bodyGreekσῶμα, σώματος (sōma, sōmatos)somatic
soph-, sopho-wise, clever, learnedGreekσοφός (sophos)sophist, sophomore
sorb-, sorpt-suckLatinsorbereabsorb, absorption
sord-dirtLatinsordes, sorderesordid
spec-, -spic-, spect-lookLatinspecereconspicuous, inspection, specimen
spect-watch, look atLatinspectarespectator
sper-hopeLatinspes, speraredesperation, esperance
sperm-seedGreekσπέρμα (sperma)angiosperm
sphen-wedgeGreekσφήν (sphēn)sphenoid
spher-ballGreekσφαῖρα (sphaira)sphere, spheroid
spond-, spons-a surety, guarantee; give assurance, promise solemnlyLatinspondere, sponsusrespond
spondyl-vertebraGreekσπόνδυλος (spondylos)spondylosis
spu-, sput-spew, spitLatinspueresputum
squal-scaly, dirty, filthyLatinsqualeresqualid, squalor
squarros-spreading at tipsLatinsquarrosussquarrose
st-, stat-, stin-standLatinstare (past participle status) "stand"; stinare, related to stare "stand"; from PIE root *sta- "stand"stable, station
stagn-pool of standing waterLatinstagnarestagnant
stalact-Greekσταλακτίτης (stalaktitēs)stalactite
stalagm-Greekσταλαγμός (stalagmos)stalagmite
stasis-standing, discordGreekστάσις (stasis)static
statu-, -stitu-standLatinstatuereinstitution, statute
stear-fat, tallowGreekστέαρ, στέατος (stear, steatos)stearic acid
steg-coveringGreekστέγη (stege), στεγανός (steganos)steganography, Stegosaurus
stell-starLatinstellaconstellation, stellar
sten-narrowGreekστενός (stenos)stenography
stere-, stereo-solidGreekstereos "solid," from PIE root *ster- "stiff, rigid"stereotype, stereoscopic
stern-, strat-spread, strewLatinsternere, stratusstratify
stern-breastboneGreekστέρνον (sternon)sternum
stich-line, rowGreekστίχος (stichos)
stigmat-mark, punctureGreekστίγμα (stigma)stigma
still-dripLatinstilla, stillaredistillation
stimul-goad, rouse, exciteLatinstimulusstimulate
stingu-, stinct-prick, stick, pierce, goad; quenchLatinstinguere (-stinctus, pp. of -stinguere) "prick, stick, goad", and has the remote metaphorical meaning "quench"; cognate with English stick and instigate (stig- from stigare "prick, goad") and stigma; from PIE *stig- "prick, stick".distinction, distinguish
stom-mouthGreekστόμα (stoma)stomatoplasty
strept-twistedGreekστρεπτός (streptos)Streptococcus
strig-compressLatinstrix, strigisstrigogyps
strigos-having stiff bristlesLatinstrigosus from strigastrigose
string-, strict-upright, stiffLatinstringere, strictusstringent
stroph-turnGreekstrephein "turn" (derived words Greek strophos "twisted band" and Greek strophe "stanza," originally "a turning")apostrophe
stru-, struct-to make up, buildLatinstruere, structusconstruction, construe
styl-column, pillarGreekστῦλος (stulos)stylus
su-, sut-sewLatinsuere, sutussuture
sui-selfLatinsuisui generis, suicide
suad-, suas-urgeLatinsuadere, suasuspersuasion
sub-, su-, suf-, sug-, sup-, sus-below, down, under; from below, turning upward, upward(s), up, up to, up from under, close to, closely, next to, after, behind, near, towards; subordinate, inferiorLatinsubsubmerge, suffix, suggest
sum-, sumpt-take, spendLatinsumere, sumptusassumption, consume
super-above, over, on the top (of), beyond, besides, in addition toLatinsupersupersede
supin-lying backLatinsupinussupine, supination
supra-above, overLatinsuprasupranationalism
surd-deaf, unheard, silent, muteLatinsurdusabsurdity, surd
surg-riseLatinsurgere "rise," contraction of surrigere "rise," from sub "up from below" + regere "keep straight, guide"resurgent
syn-, sy-, syl-, sym-withGreekσύν (sun)symbol, symmetry, sympathy, synchronous, synonym, system
syring-pipeGreekσύριγξ, σύριγγος (syrinx, syringos)syringe
tac-, -tic-be silentLatintacere, tacitusreticent, tacit
tach-swiftGreekταχύς (tachus)tachometer, tachycardia
taeni-ribbonGreekταινία (tainia)taenidium, taeniodont, Taeniolabis
tal-, talo-, tali-ankle, ankleboneLatintalustalus
tang-, -ting-, tact-, tag-touchLatintangere, tactuscontact, tactile, tangent
tapet-carpetLatintapete, tapetistapestry, tapetum, tapis
tard-slowLatintardusretard, tardigrade, tardy
tars-ankleGreekταρσός (tarsos, a flat basket)tarsal
taur-bullGreekταῦρος (tauros)Minotaur
tax-arrangement, orderGreekτάξις (taxis)taxonomy
techn-art, skillGreekτέχνη (technē)technology
teg-, tect-coverLatintegere, tectusintegument, protection
tele-far, far off, afar, at or to a distanceGreekτῆλε (tēle)telegram, telephone, telescope
tel-, tele-, telo-, teleo-end, goal, result; entire, perfect, complete; taxGreekτέλος (telos), teleos (genitive telos), literally "completion of a cycle"teleology, telophase
temn-, tempt-despise, scorn, slightLatintemnere, temptuscontemn, contempt, contemptible
tempor-timeLatintempus, temporiscontemporary, temporal, temporary
ten-, -tin-, tent-, -tain, -tinu-hold, keep, maintainLatintenere, -tinere (past participle -tentus), -tinuus, from PIE root *ten- "stretch"; Connection notion between "stretch" and "hold" is "cause to maintain".continent, detention, tenacious, tenor
tend-, tens-, tent-stretch, strain, extendLatintendere (past participle tensus); -tendere (past participle -tentus); from PIE root *ten- "stretch"extend, extension, tensile
tenu-slender, thin, make thinLatintenuis, tenuareattenuate, tenuous
tep-be warmLatinteperetepid, tepor
ter-, trit-rubLatinterere, tritusattrition, contrite, detritus, trite
teret-roundedLatinteres, teretissubterete, teretial
terg-, ters-wipeLatintergere, tersusdetergent, terse
termin-boundary, limit, endLatinterminusdetermine, terminal, termination
tern-three eachLatinterniternary, ternion
terr-, terra-earth, landLatinterra "earth, land," literally "dry land" (as opposed to "sea"); from PIE root *ters- "dry" (cf Latin torrere "dry up, parch")terrace, terrain
terti-thirdLatintertiustertian, tertiary
test-witnessLatintestistestament, testimony
tetr-fourGreekτέσσαρες (tessares)tetrahedron, tetrode
tex-, text-weaveLatintexere, textuscontext, subtle, textile, texture
thalam-bridal chamber, inner chamber, bedroomGreekθάλαμος (thalamos)hypothalamus
thalass-seaGreekθάλασσα (thalassa)Panthalassa, thalassemia
than-deathGreekθάνατος (thanatos)euthanasia, thanatology
the-, theo-, thus-godGreekθεός (theos)enthusiasm, theology
the-putGreekτίθημι (tithēmi), θήκη (thēkē)Bibliotheca, theca, theme, thesis
thel-nippleGreekθηλή (thēlē)epithelium, thelium, thelial
theori-speculationGreekθεωρία (theōria)theorem, theory
ther-, thero-, theri-, therio-beast, wild animalGreekther (genitive theros) "wild animal, wild beast," from PIE *ghwer- "wild beast" (cf. Latin ferus "wild," ferox "fierce;" see fierce).theroid, theropod
therm-heat, warmGreekθερμός (thermos)endotherm, thermometer
thym-moodGreekθυμός (thumos)dysthymia
thyr-doorGreekθύρα (thura)thyratron
thyre-large shieldGreekθυρεός (thureos)Thyreophora, thyroid, thyrotropin, thyroxine
tim-be afraidLatintimeretimid, timorous
ting-, tinct-dye, tingeLatintingere (pp. tinctus; teindre (pp. teint), Old French variant) "dye, tinge," originally "moisten, soak", from PIE root *teng- "soak" (see dunk).tincture
tom-, tomo-cut; section, slice, piece, a cutting, section of a book, volumeGreekτομή (tome), τόμος (tomos), temneinatom, ectomy, tome
ton-tone, vocal pitch, key in music, voice, sound, accentGreek or LatinLatin tonus "sound, tone, accent," literally "stretching" (in Medieval Latin, a term peculiar to music), from Greek tonos "vocal pitch, voice, accent, key in music," originally "a stretching, taut string," related to teinein "stretch"monotone, tone
top-placeGreekτόπος (topos)topic, topography, toponymy
torn-, tourn-turn or rotateLatin from Greektornare < τόρνος (tornos)tornado, tournament
torpe-numbLatintorperetorpent, torpid, torpor
tors-, tort-, -tort, tortu-, torqu-twist, bend, curve, turnLatintorquere, tortusextortion, torque, torture
tot-, toti-all, whole, entireLatintotussubtotal, total, totality
tox-arrow, bowGreekτόξον (toxon)toxoplasmosis
trab-beamLatintrabs, trabistrabeculae
trachy-roughGreekτραχύς (trachus)trachea
trag-goatGreekτράγος (tragos)tragus
trah-, tract-, treat-drag, draw, pullLatintrahere, tractussubtrahend, tractor
tra-, trans-, tran-across, over, beyond, throughLatin*trare (present participle trans); tra-, shortened form of trans- before the consonants d-, m-, n-, l-, v-, j-.tradition, transcend, transportation
trapez-four-sided, tableGreekτράπεζα (trapeza)trapezius, trapezoid
traum-woundGreekτραῦμα (trauma)trauma, traumatic, traumatize
trecent-three hundredLatintrecentitrecentennial, trecentillion
treiskaidek-thirteenGreekτρεισκαίδεκα (treiskaideka)triskaidekaphobia
trema-holeGreekτρῆμα (trēma)monotreme, trematode
tri-threeGreekτρεῖς, τρία (treis, tria)triad, trigon, triode, tripod
tri-threeLatintrēstriangle, triumvirate, trivia
tricen-thirty eachLatintricenitricenary
tricesim-, trigesim-thirtiethLatintricesimustrigesimal
tricho-, trich-, -thrix, trichin-hairGreekthrix (genitive trikhos) "hair"; trikhinos "of or like hair"peritrichous, trichopathophobia, Trichoptera
trin-three eachLatintrinitrinary, trine, trinity
trit-thirdGreekτρίτος (tritos)tritagonist
troch-wheelGreekτροχός (trochos)trochlea
trop-turningGreekτρόπος (tropos)heliotropism, psychotropic, tropic
troph-feed, growGreekτροφή, τροφός (trophos)dystrophy, pogonotrophy, trophic
trud-, trus-thrust, pushLatintrudere; -trusus, pp. of -trudereextrusion, intrude
tuss-coughLatintussis, tussirepertussis
tympan-drumGreekτύμπανον (tumpanon)tympani
typ-, typo-kind; form, pattern, model, mold; impression, print; mark, symbolGreekτύπος (tupos), typosarchetype, phenotype, typography
uber-fruitfulLatinuber, uberareexuberant
uligin-in marshesLatinuligo, uliginisuliginous
ulo-woolyGreekοὖλος (oulos)Ulotrichi
ultim-farthestLatinultimusultimate, ultimatum
ultra-beyond, extremelyLatinultra- from ultra "beyond, on the further side," from PIE *al- "beyond"; compare extra, intra.ultrasonic
umbr-shade, shadowLatinumbrapenumbra, umbrella
un-, uni-one, singleLatinuni-, comb. form of unusunary, unicorn, union
unci-ounce, twelfthLatinunciauncial
und-wave, flow in waves, rise in wavesLatinundare "flow in waves, rise in waves," from unda "wave", from PIE root *wed-/*wod-/*ud- "water, wave, wet" (cf. Greek hydor (see root hydr- / hydro-), Russian voda / vodka).abundant, undulate
unden-eleven eachLatinundeniundenary
ungui-claw, nailLatinunguis
ungul-claw, hoofLatinungulaungulate
ur-tailGreekοὐρά (oura)uroid, uroborus
ur-urineGreekοὖρον (ouron)urology
urb-cityLatinurbs, urbissuburbanite, urban, urbanism, urbanize
urs-bearLatinursusUrsa Major, ursine
ut-, us-useLatinuti, usususual, utility
uxor-, uxori-wifeLatinuxor (genitive uxoris)uxoricide
vac-emptyLatinvacarevacancy, vacation, vacuum
vad-, vas-go, walkLatinvadere (vas-, pp. root of vad-) "go, walk"wade, evade, pervasive
vag-, vaga-wander, roamLatinvagus, vagarevagabond, vague
van-empty, vain, idleLatinvanusvanity
vap-lack (of)Latinvaporevaporation, vapid, vaporize
veh-, vect-carryLatinvehere, vectusvehicle, vector
vel-veil, cover; sail, curtainLatinvelare, velumrevelation, velate
vell-, vuls-pluck, pull, tear, twitchLatinvellere (-vulsus, pp. of -vellere) "pluck, pull, tear, twitch"convulsion
veloc-quickLatinvelox, velocisvelocity
ven-hunt, pursueLatinvenarivenison, venery
ven-, veni-, vent-comeLatinvenire (-ventus, pp. of -venire) "come"advent, convention
vend-sellLatinvenderevendor, vending
vener-worship, revereLatinvenerariveneration, venerate, venerable
ventr-bellyLatinventer, ventrisventral
ver-, veri-, verac-, veraci-trueLatinverus; veri, genitive of verum, neuter of verus; verax (genitive veracis) "truthful"aver, veracious, verify, verisimilitude, verity
verb-wordLatinverbumverbal, verbatim, verbosity
verm-wormLatinvermisvermiform, vermin
vern-springLatinver, vernusvernal
vert-, vers-turnLatinvertere (pp. versus) (freq. versare) "turn," from PIE *wert- "turn, wind," from root *wer- "turn, bend" (cf. OE -weard "toward," originally "turned toward")convert, inversion, invert, vertical
vesper-evening, westernLatinvesperavesperal
vest-clothe, garmentLatinvestisdivest, vest
veter-oldLatinvetus, veterisinveterate, veteran
vi-wayLatinviadeviate, obvious, via
vic-changeLatinvicisvice versa, vicissitude
vicen-, vigen-twenty eachLatinvicenivicenary
vicesim-, vigesim-twentiethLatinvicesimusvicesimary, vicesimation, vigesimal
vid-, vis-seeLatinvidere, visusvideo, vision
vil-cheapLatinvilisvile, vilify
vill-shaggy hair, velvetLatinvillusvilliform
vinc-, vict-conquerLatinvincere, victusinvincible, victory
vir-greenLatinvirerevirid, viridian
visc-, visco-, viscos-, viscosi-sticky, stickinessLatinviscum "anything sticky, birdlime made from mistletoe, mistletoe"viscosity
viscer-organs of the body cavityLatinviscus, visceriseviscerate, visceral
vit-lifeLatinvita "life", cognate with vivere "live"vital, vitamin
viti-faultLatinvitiumvice, vitiate
viv-liveLatinvivere "live", cognate with vita "life"revive, survive, vivid
voc-voiceLatinvox, vocisprovocative, vocal, vocation
vol-, volat-, voll-, vola-flyLatinvolare (pp. volatum, volatus) "fly"volatility, volley, volleyball, volant
vol-, volit-, volunt-, velle-wish, willLatinvelle, volo; volentem (nom. volens) pres. part. of velle; volentem=>volent-(vol- + -ent)=>volunt-(元音音变); volitionem (nom. volitio) "will," from stem (as in volo "I wish") of velle "wish," from PIE *wel-/*wol- "be pleasing" (see will).volition
volv-, volut-rollLatinvolvere, volutusconvolution, revolve
vor-, vorac-swallowLatinvorare, voraxdevour, voracious
vov-, vot-vowLatinvovere, votusvotive
vulg-common, crowdLatinvulgusdivulge, vulgarity, vulgate
vulner-woundLatinvulnus, vulnerisvulnerable
vulp-foxLatinvulpes, vulpisvulpine
xanth-yellowGreekξανθός (xanthos)xanthium, xanthochromia, xanthogenic, xanthophyll
xen-foreignGreekξένος (xenos)xenoblast, xenogamy, xenophobia, xenon
xer-dryGreekξηρός (xēros)xeroderma, xerography, xeromorph, xerophagy, xerophile, xerophyte
xiph-swordGreekξίφος (xiphos)xiphisternum, xiphoid, xiphophyllous
xyl-woodGreekξύλον (xulon)xylem, xylocarp, xyloid, xylophone
zel-zeal, jealousyGreekζῆλος (zēlos)jealousy, zeal
zo-animal, living beingGreekζῷον (zōion)protozoa, zoo, zoology
zon-belt, girdleGreekζώνη (zōnē)zone
zyg-yokeGreekζυγός (zugon)heterozygous, zygote
zym-fermentGreekζύμη (zumē)enzyme, lysozyme
mod-manner, measureLatinmodus "manner, measure"modern, moderate, mode
dis-, dif-, di-, des-, de-lack of, not; do the opposite of; apart, asunder, off, away; completely, entirely, utterlyLatindis- "apart, in a different direction, between," figuratively "not, un-," also "exceedingly, utterly"; (assimilated as dif- before -f-, to di- before most voiced consonants) de- shortening from des- or directly from Latin de- prefix.dishonest, disallow, discard
gnar-, gnor-know, known, aware, acquainted withLatingnarus "aware, acquainted with", related to gnoscere "to know".ignorant
manth-, manthem-, math-, mathem-learnLatinmanthanein "to learn"mathematic, polymath
-mancy, mant-divination, divination by means of, oracle, prophetLatin from Greekfrom Old French -mancie, from Late Latin -mantia, from Greek manteia "oracle, divination," from mantis "seer, prophet, soothsayer"mantic, geomancy, necromancy, arithmancy
lubric-slippery, smoothLatinlubricuslubric, lubricant, lubricate
kin-, kino-, kines-, kinet-, kinem-movement, motionGreekfrom Greek kino-, from kinein "to move"; from Greek kinesis; from Greek kinetos; from Greek kinema "movement," from kinein "to move"kinesis, kinesiology, kinetic, kinase, kinesthetic, kinema, kinematics
leg-, lig-, lect-read, gather, pick together, select, choose, pick up, pick out, takeLatinlegere; -lectus, pp. of -ligere or -legerelecture, legible, legion, collect, election, select, sacrilege
stirp-a root, stock of a treeLatinstirps, stirpisextirpate, extirpation, stirpes
for-away, opposite, against, completelyOld Englishfrom Old English for-, indicating loss or destruction, or completion, also used as an intensive or pejorative elementforget, forgive, forbid, forsake
mon-moon, monthOld Englishmona "moon"month, moon, Monday
mon-, monit-advise, warn, remindLatinmonere (past participle monitus)monitor, admonish, summon, monument
parl-speakOld Frenchparler "to speak"parlor, parley, parlance, parliament
minim-smallest, leastLatinfrom Latin minimum "smallest" (thing), neuter of minimus "smallest, least," superlative of minor "smaller".minimus, minimum, minimal, minim
aud-, audac-, audaci-brave, bold, dareLatinaudere, audacis genitive of audaxaudacity, audacious
all-, allo-other, another, different, strangeGreekallosallergy, allogenic, allopathy
allel-, allelo-each other, one anotherGreekallelois, allel-parallel, allele, allelomorph, allelomimetic
para-, par-defense, protection against; that which protects from; ward offItalianfrom Italian para, imperative of parare "to ward off," from Latin parare "make ready"parachute, parados, parapet, parry
par-, per-make ready, get ready, prepare, furnish, provide, arrange, orderLatinparareprepare, apparatus, compare, reparation, imperative
par-, per-come forth, be visible, come in sight, appear; produce, bring forth, bear, give birth toLatinparereapparent, appear, transparent, biparous, parent, viviparous, puerperal
ven-sexual love, sexual desireLatinvenusvenery, venereal
ven-for saleLatinvenumvenal, vend
lucid-light, shine, bright; perspicuous, lucid, clearLatinlucidus "light, bright, clear," figuratively "perspicuous, lucid, clear"lucid, elucidate
pro-pro, for, in favor of, favoringLatinpropro, pro-life, pro-choice
fan-templeLatinfanumprofane, fanatic
olig-, oligo-small, little, fewGreekoligosoligopoly, oligotrophy
indi-in, withinLatinindu "in, within" (earlier endo)indigenous, indigene, indigence, indigent
genit-bear, beget, produce, birthLatingenitus, past participle of gignere "bear, beget, produce"genital, congenital, progenitor
geni-spirit, witLatingenius, emphatic the spirit\wit\ability of inborn havegenius, genial, ingenious, congenial
genu-natural, frankLatingenuusgenuine, ingenue, ingenuous
genar-ten timesLatin-genaria "ten times"nonagenarian, octogenarian, sexagenarian
glans-, gland-acorn, nut; acorn-shaped ballLatinglans (genitive glandis)glans, glandes, gland, glandular
sac-, sacc-bagLatinsaccussac, sack, satchel
extrem-outermost, utmost, farthest, lastLatinextremus "outermost, utmost, farthest, last," superlative of exterusextreme, extremist, extremity
exper-, experi-, expert-try, testLatinexperiri "try, test" from ex- "out of" + peritus "experienced, tested"; expertus, past participle of expeririexperiment, experience, expert
uber-fruitfulLatinuberare "be fruitful," related to uber "udder"exuberant, exuberance
liqu-, lique-, liquid-fluid, liquid; melt, flowLatinliquere, liqui, liquidusliquefy, liquid, deliquesce
un-not, reverse of, opposite ofOld Englishun-undo, unbutton, unable
cuper-, cover-get, gainLatincuperare, related to cipererecover, recuperate
postul-ask, demand; claim; requireLatinpostularepostulate, postulant, expostulate
aper-, apert-open, uncoverLatinaperire, apertusaperitif, aperture
oper-, opert-close, coverLatinoperire, opertusoperculum
pens-, pond-, ponder-weigh, consider; weightLatinpensare (frequ. pendere) "weigh, consider", pondus (genitive ponderis) "weigh, weight", ponderare "weigh" (hence "consider")pensive, ponder, ponderous
just-just, upright, equitableLatiniustusjust, justice, justify
penit-, pent-regret, cause or feel regretLatinpaenitere, probably originally "is not enough, is unsatisfactory," from paene => pen- "almost"penitence, penitentiary, repent
pen-, peno-, pun-punishment, penaltyLatinpoena, poenire, punirepenal, penology, punish, impunity
gram-, gramo-, gramm-metric unit of weight, small weight; something written, letter, letter of the alphabet; graph-Greekgramma, from stem of grapheinkilogram, program, pentagram, telegram
dot-, dos-, dow-give, offer; endow, portion, bestow; marriage portion, dowryGreek or Latindotare "endow, portion, bestow" from dos (gen. dotis) "marriage portion, dowry, give", from PIE *do-ti- "give", from root *do- "give", related to L. donum "a giving, gift"; dare (pp. datus) "give"; G. didonai, "give," doron "gift"antidote, anecdote, dose, dosage, endow, dower
mant-cloakLatinLate Latin mantum "cloak," back-formation from Latin mantellum "cloak"mantle, dismantle, mantel, mantelpiece, manteau, mantua, manta, mantilla
tract-, treat-manage, handle, deal withLatintractaretractable, treatise, treaty
templ-plank, rafter; building for worship, area for the taking of auguries, piece of ground consecrated for the taking of auspicesLatintemplumtemplate, temple, contemplate
gam-play, jest, joke; game, joy, fun, amusementOld Englishgamen, gameniangame, gamble
gamb-leg, the hock or leg of horseLatingambe, gambagambol, gambrel
gam-marriageGreekgamospolygamy, monogamy, misogamy
spars-, spers-, sparg-, sperg-scatter, spread, sprinkle, strewLatinsparsus, past participle of spargeresparse, disperse, aspersion, Asperges
cit-move, set in motion, put in sudden motion; summon, rouse, call, call forward, stir, exciteLatincitus, past participle of ciere; citarecite, excite, solicit
soll-, sol-, soli-, solid-whole, entireLatinsollus "whole, entire", solidus "whole, entire, firm", PIE root *sol- "whole"solid, solicit, consolidate
souci-careLatinsoucier "care", from Latin sollicitare (see solicit, solicitude; citus, ciere); ll -> uinsouciance, sans souci
pang-, ping-, pag-, pact-fix, fasten, make firm, join together, uniteLatinpangere, pactus, PIE root *pag-/*pak-impinge, propagate, compact
onto-a being, individual; being, existenceGreekonto-, from stem of on (genitive ontos) "being"ontology, paleontology
pall-, palli-, pallio, pallit-cloak, coverlet, covering, mantleLatinpallium, related to pallo (“cloak, robe”), which is possibly from the root of pellis (“skin”).pall, palliate
dogm-, dogmat-opinion, tenet, doctrineGreekdogma (genitive dogmatos) "opinion, tenet," literally "that which one thinks is true," from dokein "appear, seem (good), think, believe"dogma, dogmatic
gene-generation, descent, raceGreekgeneagene, genealogy, heterogeneity
fore-beforeOld Englishforebefore, forebode
dol-grieve, suffer, suffer painLatindolerecondole, doleful, indolence
cliv-a slopeLatinclivus "a slope", from PIE root *klei- "lean, incline"acclivity, declivity, proclivity
cresc-, creas-, cret-, cre-, cru-, crut-, cruit-grow, arise, increaseLatincrescerecrescendo, crescent, decrease, accretion, decrement
-archyrule, leadGreek-arkhia "rule"; arkheinhierarchy, monarchy
arc-, arcu-bow, archLatinarcus, arcuarearc, arcade, arcuate
-scopeinstrument for seeingGreekLate Latin -scopium, from Greek -skopion, from skopein "to look at, examine"horoscope, kaleidoscope, stethoscope
con-endeavor, try; set oneself in motionGreekconari "endeavor, try," from PIE *kona-, from root *ken- "set oneself in motion"conation, conative, deacon
trib-, tribo-, tript-, trips-rub, wear out, wear awayGreektribos, tribein, tripsisdiatribe, lithotripsy, tribadism, tribology
pelag-seaGreekpelagosarchipelago, pelagic
-tomya cuttingGreekGreek -tomia "a cutting of," from tome "a cutting, section"dichotomy, phlebotomy
-ectomysurgical removalGreek-ektomia "a cutting out of," from ektemnein "cut out," from ek "out" + temnein "cut"vasectomy, mastectomy
-logya speaking, discourse, treatise, doctrine, theory, science; collectionGreek-logia (often via French -logie), from root of legein "speak; gather".entomology, technology
-graphya writing, a recording, a description; process of writing or recordingFrench or Greek-graphie, -graphiatomography, typography
lys-, lyt-, lyz-loose, loosen, set free, unfasten, untie, release, slacken, dissolveGreeklysis, lytos, lyeinanalysis, electrolyte
-lystshortened form of -lysist, which is from lys- + -ist; -lyst replaced -lysistGreek-lysist, from lys- + -istanalyst, catalyst, psychoanalyst
leg-, lig-, lect-gather, collect, pick out, select, choose; count, reckon; choose words, speak, say, tell, declare, speech, dictionGreeklegein "say, speak," originally, in Homer, "pick out, select, collect"; (cogn. with lexis "speech, diction"; logos "word, speech, thought, account"; lignum "wood", literally "that which is gathered"); -lektos, verbal adjective of -legeinanalects, dialect
langu-weak, faint, wearyLatinlanguerelanguid, languish, languor
dich-, dicho-in two, asunder, apart, separatelyGreekdichadichotomy, dichogamy
tect-, tecton-builder, carpenterGreektekton (genitive tektonos) "builder, carpenter," from PIE root *tek- "to make"architect, tectonic
ag-, act-, eg-, ig-act, do, make; set in motion, move; urge, impulse; drive, lead, bring, conduct, guideGreek or Latinagere, actus, ageinact, adage, agent, agile, variegate, navigate
agog-leader, leadingGreekagogos "leader," from agein "to lead"pedagogue, mystagogue, hypnagogic, demagogue
agon-contest, a struggle for victory in the gamesGreekagonia, agon, from agein "to lead"agony, antagonist, protagonist
bil-, bili-bile, fluid secreted by the liverLatinbilis "fluid secreted by the liver," also one of the four humors (also known as choler), thus "anger"bile, biliary, bilious
-men-, -min-, -meno-, -omen-, -omin-, -omeno-passive suffixGreekGreek passive suffix -menos, -omenos (behind the roots that ending with consonant).phenomenon, abdomen, feminine, abdominal
phan-, phen-, pheno-appear, show, be seen, bring to lightGreekfrom Latin phaeno-, from Greek phaino-, from phainein "show"tryptophan, diaphanous, phenomenon
phen-, pheno-pertaining to or derived from benzeneGreekbecause phene had been found in coal tar, a byproduct of the manufacture of "illuminating gas," from Greek phainein "bring to light"; used in science, especially in chemicalsphene, phenol
domin-lord, master, ownerLatindominus "lord, master, owner," literally "master of the house," from domus "house, home"dominate
turb-disorder, disturb, confuse; turmoil, uproarLatinturbare "disorder, disturb, confuse," from turba "turmoil, crowd"turbid, perturb, disturb
turb-, turbo-, turbin-that which spins, violent motion, whirlLatinturbo (genitive turbinis), probably borrowed from Greek tyrbe "turmoil, disorder," which probably derives from PIE base *twer-, *tur- "turn, whirl"turbo, turbojet, turboprop, turbit, turbine, turbinate
-phile, -philone that loves, likes, or is attracted toGreek-philos, common suffix in personal names, from philos, phileinbibliophile
-sophyknowledge, wisdomGreek-sophia, from sophia "skill, wisdom, knowledge"philosophy, theosophy
self-oneself, automaticOld Englishselfselfish
mis-, mes-bad, badly, wrong, wronglyOld English or Old FrenchOld English mis-, Old French mes-; In 14c.-16c. in a few verbs its sense began to be felt as "unfavorably" and was used as an intensive prefix with verbs already expressing negative feeling (e.g. misdoubt).misread, mischief
ev-, aev-age, an age, lifetimeLatinaevumcoeval, medieval, primeval
ord-, ordin-order, put in order, set in order, arrangeLatinordo (genitive ordinis), ordinareordain, ordinal, ordinary
mun-, muni-, muno-, muner-gift, service, public service, duty, public duty, official dutyLatinmunus (plural munia), munus (genitive muneris), munismunicipal, immune, commune
mun-, muni-defend, fortify, protect, surround with a wall, defensive wallsLatinmuniremunition, ammunition, muniments
val-, vali-, vale-, -vail-be strong, be well, be worth, be of value, have power, be ableLatinvalereavail, valor, valiant, valediction
dic-judgment, justice, right; custom, usage, lawGreekdiketheodicy, syndic, Eurydice
dic-, dict-, deict-, -digmshow, prove, point outGreekdeiktos "shown," verbal adjective from deiknynai "show"apodictic, deictic, paradigm
-ude, -udin-; -tude, -tudin-; -itude, -itudin-corresponding in meaning to suffix -nessLatin-udo (genitive -udinis), -tudo (genitive -tudinis); As suffix, forming abstract nouns from adjectives and participles; First used ending in -t or -te; Second used ending in vowels; third used ending in consonants.altitude, aptitude, longitude
a-ofOld EnglishAs prefix, meaning "of", from Middle English a-, from Old English of.akin
a-on; in, intoOld EnglishAs prefix, meaning "on", used to form adjectives and adverbs from nouns; from Old English an, on; Old English on, unstressed variant of an "in, on, into," also used in Old English in many places where we would now use in.abroad, ashore
a-intensive prefixOld English1) Old English intensive prefix a-, marking a verb as momentary, a single event; 2) a reduced form of Old English past participle prefix ge-, from *ga-, intensive prefix.arise, awake
ne-not, noGreek or Latinnegative particle; Latin ne "that not," Greek ne-, n- "not," from PIE root *ne "not"necessary, nefandous, nepenthe, neuter
plex-, plect-, pleg-hit, strikeGreekplessein; -plektos, verbal adjective of -plesseinapoplexy, apoplectic, paraplegia
sembl-appear, seem, be like; together, gatherOld Frenchsembler; from simulare, similis; from Old Latin semol "together," from PIE root *sem-/*som- "same" (see same).assemble, dissemble, semblance
-phonevoice, sound, speaker ofGreekphone "sound, voice," related to phanai "speak", from PIE root *bha- (2) "speak, say, tell"microphone
fam-talk, rumor, report, reputationLatinfama, from PIE root *bha- (2) "speak, tell, say"fame, famous, defame
phas-, phat-, phes-, phet-, phem-speak, say, talk, speechGreekphasis, phatos, phanai, pheme, phemos; from PIE root *bha- (2) "speak, say, tell"aphasia, apophatic, prophet, euphemism
-phasia, -phasy, -phemiaspeechGreek-phemia, -phasia; phasis, phemeaphasia
fabul-speak, talk, chat; story, fable, narrative, taleLatinfabulare, fabulari, fabula; from PIE root *bha- (2) "speak, tell, say"confabulate, fable, fabulous
tond-, tons-shear, shaveLatintonsus, past participle of tondere "shear, shave," from PIE root *tom-/*tem- "cut"tonsorial, tonsure
cosmet-arrange, adorn, ornamentGreekkosmetos, from kosmein "arrange, adorn," from kosmos "order"cosmetic
genes-, genet-origin, creation, generation, formationGreekgenesis, from genes, from genosgenesis, genetic
-geny, -gonyorigin, genesis, creation, generation, production, formationGreek-geneia, -gonia; from genes, gonos; cognate with genos; from PIE root *gen(e)-progeny, cosmogony
gon-, gono-sexual, reproductiveGreekgonos, gone, cognate with genos, from PIE root *gen(e)-gonad, gonorrhea
-gon-angleGreek-gonos, from gonia "corner, angle", related to gony "knee"decagon, octagon
-aster, aster-star, starlikeGreek or LatinasterClypeaster, asterisk
-asterexpressing incomplete resemblanceGreek or Latinusually diminutive and deprecatory, from Latin, from Greek -aster, suffix originally forming nouns from verbs ending in -azein, later generalized as a pejorative suffixpoetaster, patraster
intro-on the inside, within, inward, to the insideLatinintro; intero-, from interus, from in; from PIE *en-t(e)ro-, suffixed form of preposition *en "in"introduce
patern-of a father, fatherlyLatinpaternus, the adjective form of pater; -nus, Latin adjective suffix, usually suffixed to the word which is ending with -(e/u/...)r, especially for noun.paternal, paternity
matern-maternal, of a motherLatinmaternus, the adjective form of matermaternal, maternity
fratern-brotherlyLatinfraternus, the adjective form of fraterfraternal, fraternity, fraternize
extro-outwardsLatina variant of extra- by influence of intro-; on the analogy of intro-extrovert
over-above; highest; across; too much; above normal; outerOld Englishofer (see over)overturn, overthrow
terg-, tergi-back, the backLatintergus, tergumtergal, tergiversate
cusp-, cuspid-point, pointed endLatincuspis (genitive cuspidus)cusp, cuspid
cumul-, cumulo-heapLatincumulus; cumulo-, comb. form of cumuluscumulate, cumulus
paus-, pos-halt, cease, pause, stop, restGreek or Latinpausa, pausare; pausis, paueinpause, repose, composure
ton-thunderLatintonareastonish, detonation
ten-, ton-stretch, strain, extendGreektonos, teineinhypotenuse, peritoneum
tetan-, tetano-tetanusGreektetanos "stretched, rigid, stiff", from a reduplicated form of the PIE base *ten- "stretch"tetanus, tetany
tenac-, tinac-, tenaci-, tinaci-tough, holding fast, holding tightlyLatintenax (genitive tenacis) "tough, holding fast," from tenere "hold"tenacity
dign-worthy, suitable, fitting, properLatindignus (for *dec-nos), (lit. 'decorated, splendid'); from PIE base *dek-, *dok- "take, receive, accept; acceptable, suitable, fitting, proper"dignity, indignant
doc-a wooden beamGreekdokos 'a wooden beam' (lit. 'that which holds the roof'); from PIE base *dek-, *dok-.diplodocus
didact-teachGreekdidaskein (past participle didaktos); prob. from *didac-/*didak- which is a reduplicated form of the PIE base *dek-, dissimilated from *di-dak-skein and cogn. with Latin discere (for *didk-skere) "learn"; from PIE base *dek-, *dok-.didactic
decor-ornamentLatindecus (genitive decoris) "ornament, splendor, glory, honor, dignity, grace"; from PIE base *dek-, *dok-.decorate
dec-, decor-seemly, becoming, suitable, fitting, properLatindecere "be fitting or suitable or seemly"; decorus "suitable, seemly, fitting, proper", from decus (genitive decoris) "ornament, splendor, glory, honor, dignity, grace"; from PIE base *dek-, *dok-.decent, decorous
ali-other, the other, anotherLatinalius "(an)other", compare Greek allos "other" (all-, allo-) from PIE *al- "beyond".alibi, alias, alien, alienate
al-, ali-, ol-, el-, alm-nourish, feed, growLatinalere; almus, from alere; from PIE root *al- "grow, nourish"alumnus, aliment, adolescent, atheling, Alma Mater
alt-, alti-highLatinaltus "high," literally "grown tall", cognate with alere, from PIE root *al- "grow, nourish"altar, altimeter, alto
-monydenoting action, state, condition, result of an action or conditionLatinnominal suffix, from -monia, -monium (cognate with Greek -men).patrimony, sanctimony, testimony
alter-changeLatinalterare "change," from Latin alter "the other (of the two)," from PIE *al- "beyond" + comparative suffix -ter.alter, alteration
altern-one after the other, alternate, in turns, reciprocalLatinalternus, the adjective form of alter.alternate, subaltern
proles-, prolet-, proli-offspringLatinproles "offspring", contracted from *pro-oles, from PIE *pro-al-, from *pro- "forth" + *al- "grow, nourish"prolific, proliferation, proles
agor-, egor-, agyr-, egyr-open space, assembly, public assembly, place of assemblyGreekagora "open space, (public) assembly", from ageirein "assemble"; agyris/aguris "place of assembly," Aeolic form of agora; from PIE base *gere-, *ger- "gather, gather together, assemble".agora, agoraphobia
agor-, egor-speak openly, speak (in the assembly), declaim (in the assembly), speak in publicGreekagoreuein "speak openly, speak (in the assembly)," originally "speak in the assembly," from agora "assembly", from ageirein "assemble"; from PIE base *gere-, *ger- "gather, gather together, assemble".allegory, category, paregoric
min-, men-, menac-, menaci-, minac-, minaci-threatenLatinminax (genitive minacis) "threatening," from minari "threaten, jut, project," related to mons "hill" (see mount, montem (nominative mons) "mountain," from PIE root *men- "jut, jut out, stand out, project")menace, minatory
men-lead, direct, driveLatinmener "lead, direct, drive," from Latin minare "threaten," in Late Latin "drive (animals) with shouts," variant of minari "threaten, jut, project," related to montem (nominative mons) "mountain," from PIE root *men- "jut, stand out, project".amenable, demeanor, promenade
mont-, mount-mountainLatinmontem (nominative mons), mons (genitive montis) "mountain"mount, mountain, amount
mnes-, mnest-, mnemon-memory, remembranceLatinmnesis, mnestis, mnemon (genitive mnemonos)anamnesis, amnesty, mnemonic
ang-, angu-, anxi-choke, squeeze, throttle; torment, cause distressLatinangere, anguere, anxiusanger, angry, anguish, anxious, anxiety
electr-, electro-electrical, electricityGreekLatinized form of Greek elektro-, comb. form of elektron "amber" (see electric)electric, electricity
op-, opo-, ops-eyeGreekops (genitive opos) "eye" from PIE *okw- "see"myopia
my-close, shutGreekmyein "close, shut"myopia
-centrichaving a center (of a certain kind); centered onGreekkentrikos "pertaining to a center," from kentron (see center)anthropocentric
-pathyfeeling, suffering, emotion; disease, system of treatment of diseaseLatin-pathia, from Greek -patheia "suffering, feeling", from pathos or pathein; Meaning "system of treatment of disease" is abstracted from homeopathy.apathy, allopathy
gem-, gemm-, gemmi-precious stone; budLatingemma "precious stone, jewel," originally "bud," perhaps from the root *gen- "produce"gem, gemmologist
-foldmultiplicative suffixOld English-feald, related to Greek -paltos, -plos; Latin -plus; and the word of foldmanifold, hundredfold
-plemultiplicative suffixLatin-plus "multiplicative suffix, -fold", related to plicare "fold"triple
stat-state, condition, manner of standing, positionLatinstatus "manner of standing, position, condition," noun of action from past participle stem of stare "stand," from PIE root *sta- "stand"status, state
reg-a king, a leaderLatinrex (genitive regis) "a king, a leader," cognate with regere; (compare Old English rice "kingdom," -ric "king," rice "rich, powerful," riht "correct")rex, regent
tent-, tenta-, tempt-feel, try, testLatintentare "feel, try" (variant of temptare "feel, try, test")attempt, tentacle, tentative
clam-, -claimcry out, shout, call, proclaimLatinclamare "cry out, shout, proclaim" (cognate with Latin calare "announce solemnly, call out" and Greek kalein "call"), from PIE base *kla-, variant of root *kal- "shout", perhaps from imitative origin (compare word call)clamor, acclaim
cess-, ceas-cease, stop, come to an endLatincessare "cease, stop," freq. of cedere (pp. cessus) "yield, give place, give up some right or property," orig. "go, go from, proceed, leave, go away, withdraw, give ground," cogn. with Greek hodos "way," from PIE *ked- "go, yield"cease, incessant
lex-word, speech, dictionGreeklexis "word, speech, diction", from legein "say"; cognate with legere, logoslexis, lexical, lexicon
lexic-, lexico-dictionary, wordbook, pertaining to wordsGreeklexikon "wordbook, dictionary"; lexikos "pertaining to words," from lexis "word," from legein "say"lexicography
futil-vain, worthlessLatinfutilis "vain, worthless," literally "pouring out easily" (of a vessel), hence "easily emptied, leaky, unreliable," from base of fundere (past participle fusus) "pour, melt"futile, futility
par-, pari-equal, pair, counterpartLatinpar (genitive paris) "equal, pair, counterpart" (see par).pair, disparity, parity
verg-turn, bend, turn toward, tend towardLatinvergere "bend, turn, tend toward, turn toward," from PIE *werg- "turn," from root *wer- "turn, bend"converge, verge
-fidsplit, divided into partsLatin-fidus, from findere (past participle fissus) "split"bifid, trifid
sanct-, sanctu-holy, make sacred, consecrate; decree, confirm, ratifyLatinsanctus, past participle of sancire "make sacred"; cognate with sacrare, from sacer (genitive sacri)sanction, sanctify
torr-, tost-dry up, parchLatintorrere (past participle tostus) "dry up, parch", from PIE root *ters- "dry" (cf. Latin terra "earth, land," literally "dry land" (as opposed to "sea")).torrid
hepar-, hepat-liverGreekhepar (genitive hepatos) "liver"hepar, heparin, hepatic
fig-, fict-shape, form, devise, feignLatinfingere (pp. fictus) "shape, form, devise, feign," originally "to knead, form out of clay," from PIE *dheigh- "form, knead" (cognate with dough)figure, figment, fiction
tellur-earthLatintellus (genitive telluris) "earth"tellurium, tellurian
hemer-dayGreekhemera "day"ephemeral
stig-prick, stick, pierce, goadLatinstigare "prick, goad"; cognate with English stick and stigma, Latin stinguere; from PIE *stig- "prick, stick".instigate, stigma
op-, opi-, opul-wealth, abundanceLatinops (genitive opis) "wealth, abundance", cognate with opus "work, labor, exertion" (source of Italian opera, French oeuvre), from PIE root *op- "work, produce in abundance".copious, opulent
flagr-burn, blaze, glowLatinflagrare "burn, blaze, glow"flagrant, conflagrate
fulg-shineLatinfulgere "shine"fulgent
fulmin-lightning, lightning flashLatinfulmen (genitive fulminis) "lightning flash," related to fulgere "shine, flash"fulminant
flam-, flamm-flameLatinflamma "flame"flame, flammable
horr-bristle with fear, shudderLatinhorrere "bristle with fear, shudder"horror
cond-store, hide, put togetherLatincondere "store, hide, put together," from con- "together" + -dere "put, place," comb. form of dare "give"abscond, recondite
salut-greet, good healthLatinsalus (genitive salutis) "good health", salutare (verbal form of salus) "greet" literally "wish good health to"; cognate with salvus (verbal form salvare).salute, salutary
salubr-, salubri-promoting health, healthfulLatinsalubris (genitive of saluber) "promoting health, healthful"; cognate with salvus (verbal form salvare), salus (genitive salutis).salubrious
plod-, plos-burstLatin-plodere (pp. -plosus) "burst", from plaudere "clap, clap the hands, applaud", but now only use its figurative sense "burst"; 雷鸣般的掌声, 爆炸般的掌声.explode, explosion
men-, meni-moonGreekmene "moon", cognate with men (genitive menos) "month"meniscus
mens-, -mestermonthLatinmensis "month", -mestris [-me(n)s-tris] "of month"semester, mensal
hedr-, -hedraseat, chair, base, face of a geometric solidGreekhedra "seat, base, chair, face of a geometric solid," cognate with Latin sedere "sit", from PIE root *sed- "sit".tetrahedron, cathedral
lent-slow, flexible, suppleLatinlentus "slow, flexible, supple"relent, lento
fac-, faci-, fici-face, appearanceLatinfacies "face, appearance"face, efface, facial
gent-race, clanLatingens (genitive gentis) "race, clan," from root of gignere "beget," from PIE root *gen- "produce"gens, gentile, gentle
oram-view, sight, spectacle, that which is seenGreekhorama (orama) "view, sight, spectacle, that which is seen," from horan "look, see, view"panorama, diorama
claustr-, claustro-place that shut in, confined placeLatinclaustrum (plural claustra) is formed from claus- + -trum (instrumental suffix), claus- is the pp. stem of claudere (pp. clausus) "shut, close"claustral, claustrophobia
tedi-, tidi-dull, wearyLatintaedium "dull, weary"tedium, tedious, fastidious
drap-clothOld Frenchdrap "cloth", from late Latin drapus / drappus, which was ultimately of Celtic origin.drape, drab
alg-, algo-, -algiapainGreekalgos "pain", algein "feel pain"otalgia, nostalgia
sculpt-carve, engraveLatinsculpere (pp. sculptus) "carve, engrave"sculptor
limin-thresholdLatinlimen (genitive liminis) "threshold", cognate with limes (genitive limitis) "border, limit, boundary", see lintel (from Old French lintel "threshold").eliminate
tric-perplex, perplexityLatintricae (plural) "perplexities", it meant perhaps originally "twisted ways" and derives from PIE base *treik- "turn, twist". 这里取其引申义,表示各种东西纠缠在一起,扭在一起的错综复杂的情况.extricate, intricate
hort-, hortat-exhort, encourage, urge, incite, instigateLatinhortari (pp. hortatus) "exhort, encourage, urge, incite, instigate", freq. of horior, gen. horiri "urge, incite, encourage, exhort".exhort, hortative
cerebr-, cerebro-brain; understandingLatinLatin cerebrum "the brain" (also "the understanding"), from PIE *keres-, from root *ker- "top of the head" (see horn).cerebral
mult-, multa-, multat-, mulct-punish, to fineLatinmulctare, altered (Barnhart calls it "false archaism") from multare "punish, to fine," from multa "penalty, fine"mulct
monstr-, monstrat-show, point out; advise, instructLatinmonstrare (pp. monstratus) "show, point out, advise", from monster, from monere "warn, advise"remonstrance
dolor-, doloro-, dolori- , dol-pain, griefLatindolor "pain, grief", from dolere "feel pain, grieve"dolorous, dolorimeter
piet-, pi-, pit-, pite-, piti-, pious-dutiful, dutiful conduct; kind, kindness; devout; compassion; appease, atone, propitiateLatinpiuspity, expiate, pious, piteous
merit-, meret-, meri-, mere-deserve; earn, acquire, gain; entitled toLatinmerere, mereri (pp. meritus) "to earn, gain"merit, demerit, meretricious
-trix, -tric-, -trici-female agentLatin-trix (genitive -tricis)meretricious
orexi-, orex-, -orexia, -orexic, -oretic, -orectic, -rexiaappetite [hunger]; to stretch out for; to desireGreekorexis "appetite, desire," from oregein "to desire, stretch out" (cognate with Latin regere "to keep straight, guide, rule;" see regal).anorexia, orectic
pancre-, pancreo-, pancreat-, pancreato-, pancreatic-, pancreatico-pancreas [pan, "all" plus kreas, "flesh"; the idea apparently being that the pancreas is an organ composed entirely of glandular flesh]Greekpankreas "sweetbread (pancreas as food), pancreas," literally "entirely flesh," from pan- "all" + kreas "flesh"pancreas, pancreatic
opin-to suppose, to think, to judgeLatinopinari "think, judge, suppose, opine"opinion, opine
bat-, batt-beat, strike, hit; attackLatinOld French batre "to beat, strike" (11c., Modern French battre "to beat, to strike"), from Latin battuere "to beat, strike" (cognate with beat, see beat).debate, abate, batter, battle
arbor-, arbori-treeLatinarborarboreal
varic-straddle; varicose veinLatinvaricare "to straddle," from varicus "straddling," from varus "bent, crooked, bowlegged, knock-kneed" (see varus); varix (genitive varicis) "varicose vein".varicose, prevarication
cort-, cortic-, cortico-bark of a treeLatincortex (genitive corticis) "bark of a tree"; literally, that which is "stripped off"; used in its extended senses, chief among these being "pertaining to the outer layer of a bodily organ, especially the brain"cortex, cortical
cori-skin; hide, leather; the hide stripped offLatincorium "hide, leather, skin"; cognate with cortex (genitive corticis) "bark of a tree"; maybe fur => corium.corium, excoriate
troglo-, trogl-cave, hole; thriving in caves; cave dwellerGreektrogle "hole, mouse-hole" (from trogein "to gnaw, nibble, munch;" see trout) (through the concept of an animal chewing a hole).troglodyte
dyt-, dys-go in, dive in, put on, enterGreekdyein "go in, dive in, put on, enter"ecdysiast, troglodyte
scabr-rough, scalyLatinscaber "rough, scaly," related to scabere "to scratch, scrape"scabrous
onco-, oncho-, -oncustumor, bulk, massGreekLatinized form of Greek onko-, comb. form of onkos "bulk, size, mass, body"oncology
jejuno-, jejun-empty, dry, barrenLatinieiunus "empty, dry, barren," literally "fasting, hungry, without food"jejune
platy-, plat-, platino-, platt-broad, wide; flat, levelGreekplatys "flat, wide, broad," from PIE *plat- "to spread"plate, platform
hopl-, opl-arms, armorGreekhopla "arms, armor," plural of hoplon "tool, weapon, implement"; hopla (plural), "arms" of a hoplites ("heavily armed soldier")panoply, hoplite
scrup-, scrupul-uneasiness, anxiety, pricking of conscienceLatinscrupulus, literally "small sharp stone," diminutive of scrupus "sharp stone or pebble, rough or sharp stone," used figuratively by Cicero for a cause of uneasiness or anxiety, probably from the notion of having a pebble in one's shoe.scruple, scrupulous
barb-beard, beardlike appendageLatinbarba "beard"barb, rebarbative, barber, barbate, barbel
calor-, calori-, calid-, cald-, calo-, cal-, cale-heat, warm, be hotLatincalor (genitive caloris) "heat"; calidus "warm," calere "be hot"calorie, scald
nug-, nuga-, nugat-, nugac-, nugaci-trifling; useless, worthlessLatinnugari (pp. nugatus) "to trifle, jest, play the fool," from nugae "jokes, jests, trifles"nugacious, nugatory
maci-thin, leannessLatinmacies "leanness," from macer "thin" (see macro-).emaciate
sol-, solet-be accustomed, be wont, be used toLatinsolere "be accustomed, be wont, be used to"insolence, obsolete
tacho-, tach-, tachy-fast, speed, swift, rapidGreektakhos "speed, swiftness, fleetness, velocity," related to takhys "swift"tachometer
com-banquet, revel, festival, merrymakingGreekkomos "banquet, revel, festival, merrymaking"comedy, comic, Comus
flocc-tuft of wool, flock of woolLatinfloccus "flock of wool, tuft of wool"flocculate, flock, floss
ballo-, ball-, balo-, bolo-, bol-, -bolathrow, send, put; that which is thrownGreekballein "to throw, to throw so as to hit," also in a looser sense, "to put, place, lay"; Greek bole "a throw, beam, ray"; Greek ballizein "dance," literally "throw one's body," ancient Greek dancing being highly athletic.anabolism, ballistics, ball
axillo-, axill-, axil-armpit, upper arm, wingLatinaxilla "armpit, upper arm, wing", diminutive of axis, from PIE *aks- "axis" (see axis).axillary
dipso-, dips-, -dipsia, -dipsythirst, thirsty to drinkGreekdipsa "thirst"adipsia, dipsomania
sorc-, sors-, sort-lot, fortune, fateLatinsors (genitive sortis) "lot, fate, fortune"sorcery, sortilege
clys-, clyst-, clysm-washGreekklyzein "to wash," from PIE *kleue- "to wash, clean"cataclysm
turpit-, turp-disgraceful, depravity, infamyLatinturpis "vile, physically ugly, base, unsightly," figuratively "morally ugly, scandalous, shameful"turpitude
stulti-, stult-foolish, foolishness, folly, sillinessLatinstultus "foolish" (literally "uneducated, unmovable," from PIE root *stel- "to put, stand")stultify
phylacto-, phylact-, phylac-, phylax-guard, protect, preserveGreekphylax (genitive phylakos) "guard"phylactery
pav-, pavid-tremble with fearLatinpavidus "fearful", from pavere "tremble with fear"pavid
oscillo-, oscill-, oscillat-swing, vibrateLatin"small mask of the god Bacchus" (which is open-mouthed Bacchus as a charm) that was hung in Roman vineyards to honor the god of wine while scaring off grape-eating birds as it vibrated and swang in the breeze.oscillate
sopor-sleep, deep sleepLatinsopor (genitive soporis) "deep sleep"sopor, soporate
viti-, vitu-, vic-, vici-fault, defectLatinvitium "fault, defect" (see vice (n.1))vicious, vituperate
termit-a worm that eats wood, woodworm, white antLatintermes (genitive termitis), a special use of Late Latin termes "woodworm, white ant," literally, "the boring worm", altered (by influence of Latin terere "to rub, wear, erode") from earlier Latin tarmes.termite
uvul-, uvulo-a pendent, uvulaLatinuvula "little grape, small bunch of grapes," diminutive of uva "grape"; So called from fancied resemblance of the organ to small grapes.uvula
malleo-, malle-hammerLatinmalleus "a hammer" (cognates: Greek malakos "soft," mylos "millstone;" Latin molere "grind," mola "millstone, mill," milium "millet;" Old English melu "meal, flour")malleability
machin-, mechano-, mechan-machine, device, mechanics; means, contrivance, trickGreekmakhana, variant of mekhane "device, means," related to mekhos "means, expedient, contrivance"machine, mechanics
galvano-, galvan-voltaic electricity; electric currents; and primarily, direct electrical currentItalianNamed after the Italian physician and physicist Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) who discovered it c.1792 while running currents through the legs of dead frogs.galvanism
miasm-, miasma-, miasmat-pollution, stain, polluteGreekmiasma (genitive miasmatos) "stain, pollution, defilement, taint of guilt," from stem of miainein "to pollute," from possible PIE root *mai- "to stain, soil, defile" (source of Old English mal "stain, mark," see mole (n.1)).miasma, miasmic
caulo-, cauli-, caul-stem, stalkLatincaulis "stem, stalk," which in Vulgar Latin replaced brassica as the usual word for "cabbage"caulis, cauline, cauliflower, cole