pathosyoudaoicibaDictYouDict[pathos 词源字典]
pathos: see sympathy
[pathos etymology, pathos origin, 英语词源]
patient: [14] Etymologically, a patient is someone who is ‘suffering’. The word comes via Old French from the present participle of the Latin verb patī ‘suffer’ (source also of English passion and passive). As an adjective it had already in Latin taken on its present-day sense of ‘bearing affliction with calmness’, but the medical connotations of the noun are a post- Latin development.
=> passion, passive
patina: see pan
patriarch: see patron
patrician: see patron
patrimony: see patron
patriot: see patron
patrol: [17] What is now a reasonably dignified term began life as a colloquialism meaning ‘paddle about in mud’. English acquired the word via German from French patrouiller, which originally denoted ‘tramp around through the mud of a military camp – when doing guard duty, for instance’. This was an alteration of Old French patouiller ‘walk or trample in mud’, a verb based on the noun patte ‘paw’.

Other English words which trace their history back to patte are patois [17] (which developed via the Old French verb patoier ‘trample on’, hence ‘treat roughly’, and originally meant ‘rough speech’) and patten ‘wooden shoe’ [14].

=> patois, patten
patron: [14] Patron is one of a large group of English words descended from pater, the Latin member of the Indo-European family of ‘father’- words (which also includes English father). Among the others are paternal [17], paternity [15], paternoster [OE] (literally ‘our father’), patrician [15], and patrimony [14]. Patron itself comes from Latin patrōnus, a derivative of pater which was used for ‘one who protects the interests of another, as a father does’.

By postclassical times it had acquired its current meanings, including that of a ‘guardian saint’. Pattern is ultimately the same word as patron. The Greek branch of the ‘father’-family is represented by patér, from which English gets patriarch [12], patriot [16] (based ultimately on the notion of a ‘fatherland’), and patronymic [17].

=> father, paternal, pattern, patrician, patriot
patten: see patrol
pattern: [14] Etymologically, pattern and patron are the same word. When it arrived in Old French as patron (from Latin patrōnus), it had roughly the range of senses of modern English patron, including that of ‘one who commissions work’. But it had also acquired one other. Someone who pays for work to be done often gives an example of what he wants for the workman to copy: and so patrōnus had developed the meaning ‘example, exemplar’.

This passed into English from Old French along with the other meanings of patron, and not until the 17th century did it begin to be differentiated by the spelling pattern. The sense ‘decorative design’ emerged in the 16th century.

=> patron
patty: see paste
paucity: see few
pauper: see poor
pause: [15] Greek paúein meant ‘stop’. Its noun derivative pausis passed into English via Latin pausa and Old French pause. The Greek word also lies behind English pose and repose. Its ultimate origins are not clear, although some etymologists have suggested links with Old Prussian pausto ‘wild’ and Old Church Slavonic pustiti ‘let go’.
=> pose, repose
pavilion: [13] Pavilion got its name because some anonymous ancient Roman was reminded by a tent, with its two ‘wings’ spread out from a central crosspiece, of a ‘butterfly’. Latin for ‘butterfly’ was pāpiliō (a word of unknown origin), which hence came to be used for ‘tent’. English acquired it via Old French pavillon.
pawn: English has two words pawn. The older, ‘chess piece’ [14], means etymologically ‘footsoldier’. It comes via Anglo-Norman poun from medieval Latin pedō ‘infantryman’, a derivative of Latin pēs ‘foot’ (to which English foot is related). The foot-soldier being the lowest of the low in the army, the term came to be applied to the ‘chess piece of lowest rank’. (English gets pioneer from a derivative of paon, the Old French version of poun.) Pawn ‘pledge as security for a loan’ [15] comes via Old French pan ‘security, pledge’ from a prehistoric West Germanic *panda (source of modern German pfand ‘pledge, security, pawn’). Penny may go back to the same source.
=> foot, pedal, pioneer; penny
pay: [12] Etymologically, to pay someone is to ‘quieten them down by giving them the money they are owed’. For the word is closely related to English peace. It comes via Old French payer from Latin pācāre ‘pacify’, a derivative of pāx ‘peace’. The notion of the irate creditor needing to be appeased by payment led to the verb being used in medieval Latin for ‘pay’. The original sense ‘pacify, please’ actually survived into English (‘Well he weened with this tiding for to pay David the king’, Cursor Mundi 1300), but by the beginning of the 16th century it had virtually died out, leaving ‘give money’ in sole possession.
=> pact, peace
pea: [17] Pea is the mirror-image of dice. Dice started off as the plural of die, but has become a singular form; the singular form of pea was originally pease, but it came to be regarded as plural, and so a new singular pea was created. The word was originally acquired in the Old English period from Latin pisa, which in turn got it from Greek píson. The old singular form survives in pease pudding. Relatives of the word include French pois, Italian pisello, and Welsh pysen.
peace: [12] The etymological notion underlying peace is of ‘fastening’, so as to achieve a ‘stable’ condition. The word comes via Anglo-Norman pes from Latin pāx ‘peace’, which was derived from the same base, *pāk- ‘fasten’, as lies behind English pact, and is closely related to pagan, page, pale ‘stake’, and pole ‘stick’. Derivatives of Latin pāx or its Old French descendant to reach English include appease [16], pacific [16], pacify [15], and pay.
=> appease, pacific, pact, pagan, pale, pay, pole