fableyoudaoicibaDictYouDict[fable 词源字典]
fable: [13] The Indo-European base *bha- ‘speak’ has produced a wide range of English words, including (via Germanic) ban and (via Latin fārī ‘speak’) affable, confess, fairy, fame, fate, ineffable, infant, nefarious, and profess. Fable is a member of this latter group; it comes via Old French fable from Latin fābula ‘narrative, story’ (source also of English fabulous [15]), which was a derivative of fārī. Fib [17] is probably short for an earlier fible-fable ‘nonsense’, a fanciful reduplication of fable.
=> affable, ban, confess, fabulous, fairy, fame, fate, fib, ineffable, infant, nefarious, profess, prophet[fable etymology, fable origin, 英语词源]
fabric: [15] Latin faber was a term for an artisan who worked with hard materials – a carpenter, for example, or a smith (it probably came from a prehistoric Indo-European base meaning ‘fit things together’). From it was derived fabrica, which denoted the trade such a man followed, the place where he worked, or in general terms the product of his work – in the case of a carpenter, a ‘building’.

And ‘building’ was the original sense of the word in English when it acquired it via French fabrique: ‘He had neuer studye in newe fabrykes ne buyldynges’, William Caxton, Golden Legend 1483. Remnants of the usage survive in the current sense ‘walls, roof, and floor of a building’. It was not until the mid 18th century that the underlying notion of ‘manufactured material’ gave rise to the word’s main present-day meaning ‘textile’.

Derivatives include fabricate [18], from Latin fabricāre, and forge.

=> forge
face: [13] The notion that a person’s face ‘is’ their appearance, what they look like to the rest of the world, lies behind the word face. It probably comes from a prehistoric base *fac-, signifying ‘appear’. This gave rise to Latin faciēs, which originally meant ‘appearance, aspect, form’, and only secondarily, by figurative extension, ‘face’. In due course it passed via Vulgar Latin *facia into Old French as face, from which English acquired it (French, incidentally, dropped the sense ‘face’ in the 17th century, although the word face is retained for ‘front, aspect’, etc).

Related forms in English include facade [17], facet [17] (originally a diminutive), superficial and surface.

=> facade, facet, superficial, surface
facile: see faculty
facsimile: see fax
fact: [16] A fact is literally ‘something that is done’. It comes from Latin factum ‘deed’, a noun based on the past participle of facere ‘do’. This verb, a distant relative of English do, has contributed richly to English vocabulary, from obvious derivatives like factitious [17] and factitive [19] to more heavily disguised forms such as difficult, effect, fashion, feasible, feature, and fetish, not to mention the -fic suffix of words like horrific and pacific, and the related verbal suffix -fy.

To begin with, English adopted the word in its original Latin sense ‘deed’, but this now survives only in legal contexts, such as ‘accessory after the fact’. There is sporadic evidence in classical Latin, however, of its use for ‘something that happens, event’, and this developed in post-classical times to produce ‘what actually is’, the word’s main modern sense in French fait and Italian fatto as well as in their English relative fact. Feat is essentially the same word as fact, filtered through Old French.

=> difficult, do, effect, fashion, feasible, feature, fetish
faction: see fashion
factory: [16] Latin factor, a derivative of facere ‘make’, meant ‘maker, doer’ (it was introduced into English in the 15th century as ‘agent’, but was not adopted as a mathematical term until the mid 17th century). Among its post-classical derivatives were late Latin factōrium ‘oil-press’ and medieval Latin factōria ‘establishment for factors or agents’.

It appears that the latter must have been the original source of the word factory in English, which at first meant ‘factorship, agency’. However, this does not fit in at all with its main modern sense ‘place where things are made’, first recorded in the early 17th century, which presumably must go back in some way to Latin factōrium.

=> fact
factotum: [16] A factotum is literally someone who ‘does everything’. It was coined from fac, the imperative form of the Latin verb facere ‘do’, and tōtum ‘all’ (source of English total). Originally it was used virtually as a name, in phrases such as ‘Master Factotum’, and it does not seem to have been until the late 18th century that it settled into its current role as an ordinary noun.
=> fact, total
faculty: [14] If one has a faculty for doing something, one finds it ‘easy’ to do. The word comes, via Old French faculte, from Latin facultās. This was a parallel form to facilitās (source of English facility [15]). Both were derived from Latin facilis ‘easy’ (whence English facile [15]), an adjective formed from the verb facere ‘do’. Since facilitās more closely resembled facilis, it retained its connotations of ‘easiness’, whereas by the classical period facultās had more or less lost them, coming to mean ‘capability, power’.
=> facile, facility
fade: [14] Fade comes from Old French fader, a derivative of the adjective fade ‘faded, vapid’. This in turn came from Vulgar Latin *fatidus, which probably represents an alteration of Latin fatuus ‘stupid, insipid’ (source of English fatuous [17]) under the influence of Latin vapidus ‘flat, lifeless’ (source of English vapid).
=> fatuous, vapid
fag: English has three distinct words fag, none of whose origins is altogether clear. The oldest is the one which denotes ‘drudgery’. It is first recorded as a verb in the 16th century, meaning ‘droop, decline’; its more common noun uses, ‘hard boring work’ and ‘boy who does tasks for an older boy in a British public school’, appear to have developed in the late 18th century.

It is generally taken to have been originally an alteration of flag ‘lose vigour, droop’, although there is no conclusive proof of this. Fag ‘cigarette’ [19] is an abbreviation of fag-end [17], which originally meant generally ‘extreme end’. It was a compound formed from an earlier fag [15], whose underlying meaning seems to have been something like ‘piece hanging down loosely, flap’ (and which conceivably could be related to fag ‘drudgery’). Fag ‘homosexual’ [20] is short for faggot [13], a derogatory term applied to male homosexuals in American English since the early 20th century; the usage is probably based on the slightly earlier uncomplimentary use of the word for ‘woman’. Faggot means literally ‘bundle of sticks’, and comes via Old French fagot from Italian faggotto (which is used also for ‘bassoon’).

This in turn is a diminutive form of Vulgar Latin *facus, which was based ultimately on Greek phákelos ‘bundle’. The notion of applying a term for ‘bundle’ abusively to ‘women’ is perhaps echoed in baggage.

Fahrenheit: [18] The ‘pre-metrication’ temperature scale takes its name from its inventor, the German physicist Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736). Not only did he develop the idea of a scale in which ice melts at 32º and water boils at 212º, he also invented the mercury thermometer.
fail: [13] Fail, fallacy [15], fallible, false, and fault all come ultimately from the same source – the Latin verb fallere. This originally meant ‘deceive’, but it developed semantically to ‘deceive someone’s hopes, disappoint someone’, and in its Vulgar Latin descendant *fallīre this meaning had progressed to ‘be defective, fail’. English acquired the word via Old French faillir. Its Anglo-Norman form, failer, came to be used as a noun, and is the source of English failure [17].
=> faliacy, fallible, false, fault
faint: [13] Faint comes from Old French faint, which was originally the past participle of the verb faindre, feindre ‘pretend, shirk’ (whence English feign). This meant ‘pretended, simulated’, ‘lazy, shirking’, and ‘cowardly’, and all these senses were originally taken over by English. None now survives except the last, in the phrase faint heart, but in their place the underlying notion of ‘feebleness’ has produced ‘not bright, dim’ and ‘weak and dizzy’. The verb, based on the second of these, developed in the late 14th century. The variant spelling feint, used of printed lines, was introduced in the mid 19th century.
=> feign
fair: English has two distinct words fair, one Germanic and the other Romance. The older, meaning ‘beautiful’ [OE], comes from a prehistoric Germanic *fagraz, which survives also in Swedish fager ‘beautiful’. It derived from a base *fag-, which seems originally to have meant ‘fitting, suitable’ (a variant of it was the ultimate source of fake and possibly also of the now archaic noun fig ‘clothes, array’, as in ‘in full fig’).

Of its main present-day meanings, ‘just, equitable’ developed in the 14th century and ‘not dark’ in the mid 16th century. Fair ‘festive event’ [13] comes from Old French feire. This was a descendant of late Latin fēria, a singular use of a noun which in classical times had been used in the plural, fēriae, for ‘holiday’. A close relative of fēriae was the adjective festus ‘joyous’, source of English feast, festival, festoon, and fête.

=> fake, feast, festival, festoon, fête, fig
fairy: [14] Fairy is an Old French coinage. It comes from Old French faerie, which meant ‘enchantment, magic’ and was derived from fae ‘fairy’ (source of English fay [14]). This in turn came from the Latin plural fāta, used in personifying the Fates, three goddesses who in ancient mythology governed human destiny. The original notion of the French noun survives in the mock-medieval term faerie (introduced by Edmund Spenser in his Faerie Queene 1590), but in fairy itself it has been gradually replaced by the meaning of the word from which it was originally derived – fay.
=> fable, fame, fate
faith: [12] Faith comes ultimately from the prehistoric Indo-European *bhidh-, *bhoidh- (source also of English federal). It produced Latin fidēs ‘faith’, which lies behind a wide range of English words, including confide, defy, diffident (which originally meant ‘distrustful’), fealty [14], fidelity [15], fiduciary [17], and perfidy [16].

Its descendants in the Romance languages include Italian fede, Portuguese (as in auto-da-fé, literally ‘act of faith’, acquired by English in the 18th century), and Old French feid. This was pronounced much as modern English faith is pronounced, and Middle English took it over as feth or feith. (A later Old French form fei, foreshadowing modern French foi, produced the now defunct English fay [13]).

=> confide, defy, diffident, federal, fidelity, fiduciary, perfidy
fake: [19] The use of fake for ‘produce a fraudulent copy of’ is a comparatively recent development. It used to mean ‘do up something spurious to make it seem genuine’, and in this sense seems to be a descendant of the longobsolete verb feague [16]. Essentially it is a piece of underworld slang, and as such has a rather slippery semantic history. In the 19th century it was used, like its ancestor feague, for any number of nefarious operations, including beating up and killing (‘to fake a man out and out, is to kill him’, J H Vaux, Vocabulary of the Flash Language 1812), but its current sense leads back in a straight line to its probable ultimate source, German fegen ‘polish, refurbish’.

This (like English fig ‘clothes, array’) was a derivative of the prehistoric Germanic base *feg-, a variant of *fag-, from which English gets fair ‘beautiful’.

=> fair, feast, fig
falcon: [13] English acquired falcon via Old French faucon, but it is probably ultimately of Germanic origin. Related forms such as German falke and Dutch valk suggest a prehistoric Germanic *falkon, adopted into late Latin as falcō, and passing from there into Old French.