partneryoudaoicibaDictYouDict[partner 词源字典]
partner: [14] Partner is related to part – but not quite so directly as might appear. When it first entered the language it was in the form parcener [13], which remains in existence as a legal term meaning ‘joint heir’. This came via Anglo- Norman parcener ‘partner’ from Vulgar Latin *partiōnārius, a derivative of Latin partītiō ‘partition’ (source of English partition [15]). This in turn was based on the verb partīrī ‘divide up’, a derivative of pars ‘part’. The change from parcener to partner began in the 14th century, prompted by the similarity to part.
=> part, partition[partner etymology, partner origin, 英语词源]
parturition: see parent
party: [13] The Latin verb partīrī ‘divide up’ was derived from pars ‘part’ (source of English part). The feminine form of its past participle, partīta, was used in Vulgar Latin as a noun meaning ‘part, side’, and passed into English via Old French partie. This was later reinforced by Old French parti, which came from the Vulgar Latin neuter form *partītum and contributed the English word’s more salient current senses ‘political group’ and (in the 18th century) ‘social gathering’.

Other contributions made to English by the Latin past participle are the element -partite of words like bipartite, tripartite, etc and (via Italian) the musical term partita [19].

=> part
pass: [13] Strictly speaking, English has two distinct words pass, although they come from the same ultimate source, and have now virtually merged together again. That source was Latin passus ‘step’, which gave English pace. From it was derived the Vulgar Latin verb *passāre, which came to English via Old French passer. The past participle of the English verb has become past; and other related English words include passage and passenger.

The noun pass ‘mountain defile’ originated as a sense of pace, but since the early modern English period has been spelled (and pronounced) pass, partly through reassociation with French pas, partly under the influence of the verb pass.

=> pace, passage, passenger
passage: [13] Passage goes back to the Latin ancestor of modern French. Here, the noun *passāticum was derived from passāre (source of English pass). This found its way into English via Old French passage. At first it simply meant ‘passing’ or ‘way along which one passes’; the sense ‘segment of music, text, etc’ did not emerge in English until the 16th century.
=> pass
passenger: [14] Originally a passenger was a passager – someone who goes on a ‘passage’, makes a journey. The word was borrowed from Old French passager, at first an adjective meaning ‘passing’, which was derived from passage. The n began to appear in the mid-15th century, a product of the same phonetic process as produced the n of harbinger and messenger.
=> pass
passion: [12] Latin patī meant ‘suffer’ (it is the source of English patient). From its past participial stem pass- was coined in postclassical times the noun passiō, denoting specifically the ‘suffering of Christ on the cross’. English acquired the word via Old French passion, but its familiar modern senses, in which ‘strength of feeling’ has been transferred from ‘pain’ to ‘sexual attraction’ and ‘anger’, did not emerge until the 16th century. Also from the Latin stem pass- comes passive [14], etymologically ‘capable of suffering’.
=> passive, patient
past: [13] Past originated simply as a variant spelling of passed, the past participle of pass. The earliest unequivocal examples of it are as a preposition, but its adjectival use followed in the 14th century, and by the 16th century it was being employed as a noun too (the past).
=> pass
paste: [14] Greek pástē denoted a sort of ‘porridge made from barley’ (it was a derivative of the verb pássein ‘sprinkle’). Late Latin borrowed it as pasta, by which time it had come to mean ‘dough’. From this were descended Italian pasta (acquired by English in the late 19th century) and Old French paste, source of English paste. This at first meant ‘pastry, dough’, a sense now largely taken over by the related pastry.

The meaning ‘glue’ did not emerge until the 16th century, ‘soft mixture’ until as recently as the 17th century. Other related forms in English include pastel [17], which comes via French from the Italian diminutive pastello; pastiche [19], which comes, again via French, from Italian pasticcio ‘pie’, hence ‘hotchpotch’; and pasty [13], paté [18], and patty [18], all of which go back to medieval Latin *pastāta.

=> pasta, pastel, pastiche, pasty, paté, patty
pastor: [14] Latin pāstor meant ‘shepherd’. It came from the same base as produced pāscere ‘feed’, source of English pasture and repast, and hence denoted etymologically ‘one who grazes sheep’. The ‘animal husbandry’ sense is still fairly alive and well in the derivative pastoral [15], but in pastor itself it has largely been ousted by ‘Christian minister’, inspired by the frequent metaphorical use of shepherd for ‘minister, priest’ in the Bible.
=> pasture, repast
pastry: [16] The original word in English for ‘pastry’ in English was paste. This is still in use as a technical term, but in everyday usage it has gradually been replaced by pastry. This was derived from paste, modelled apparently on Old French pastaierie ‘pastry’, a derivative of pastaier ‘pastry cook’. It originally meant ‘article made from pastry’ (as in Danish pastries), and not until as recently as the mid- 19th century did it start being used for simply ‘pastry’.
=> paste
pasty: see paste
patch: see piece
paté: see paste
paten: see pan
patent: [14] Etymologically, patent means simply ‘open’. Its ultimate source is patēns, the present participle of the Latin verb patēre ‘be open’ (a relative of English fathom and petal). It was used particularly in the term letters patent, which denoted an ‘open letter’, particularly an official one which gave some particular authorization, injunction, etc.

It soon came to be used as a noun in its own right, signifying such a letter, and by the end of the 16th century it had acquired the meaning ‘exclusive licence granted by such a letter’. This gradually passed into the modern sense ‘official protection granted to an invention’.

=> fathom, petal
paternal: see patron
paternity: see patron
paternoster: see patron
path: [OE] Path is a West Germanic word of uncertain ultimate origin. Its cousins German pfad and Dutch pad point back to a prehistoric West Germanic ancestor *patha, but no one is too sure where this came from (one possibility is that it was borrowed somehow from Greek pátos ‘path’). The verb pad ‘tread, walk’ and the -pad of footpad come from the same source.
=> pad