canonyoudaoicibaDictYouDict[canon 词源字典]
canon: There are today two distinct words canon in English, although ultimately they are related. The older, ‘(ecclesiastical) rule’ [OE], comes via Latin canōn from Greek kanón ‘rule’, which some have speculated may be related to Greek kánnā ‘reed’, source of English cane (the semantic link is said to be ‘reed’ – ‘rod’ – ‘measuring rod’ – ‘rule’).

The derived adjective, kanonikós, passed into ecclesiastical Latin as canonicus, which was used as a noun, ‘clergyman’; in Old French this became canonie or chanonie, and as it crossed into English its last syllable dropped off (owing to the influence of canon ‘rule’). The underlying sense of canon ‘clergyman’ [13] is thus ‘one living according to the rules of religious life’.

[canon etymology, canon origin, 英语词源]
canopy: [14] Etymologically, a canopy is a ‘mosquito net’. The word comes ultimately from Greek kōnōpeion, a derivative of kónops ‘mosquito’. This passed via Latin cōnōpūum into medieval Latin as canopeum, which meant both ‘mosquito net’ and ‘couch with such a net’. English adopted it directly from Latin as canope or canape, meaning ‘covering suspended over a throne, bed, etc’.

The French version of the word, however, concentrated on other aspects of canopeum’s meaning; French canapé means ‘couch, sofa’. Its metaphorical extension, ‘piece of bread or biscuit with a savoury topping’, was borrowed into English towards the end of the 19th century.

=> canapé
cant: English has two separate words cant. The older, ‘oblique angle’ [14], originally meant ‘edge’, and appears to have come via Middle Low German kant or Middle Dutch cant, both meaning ‘edge’ or ‘corner’, from Vulgar Latin *canto, a descendant of Latin cantus ‘iron tyre’. which was probably of Celtic origin (Welsh cant means ‘rim’).

The accusative case of the Vulgar Latin word, *cantōnem, was the source of English canton [16], originally ‘corner, section’, now ‘territorial division’; while its Italian descendant, canto, may be the source of Italian cantina ‘cellar’, from which English got canteen [18]. Cant ‘thieves’ jargon’ or ‘hypocritical talk’ [16] was probably originally a specific application of the Latin verb cantāre ‘sing’ (source also of English chant, canto, cantor, cantata, and canticle).

It is usually assumed that the usage derives from an ironic transference of the singing of church congregations or choirs to the wheedling ‘song’ of beggars and (by association) thieves.

=> canteen, canton; cantata, cantor, chant
cantaloupe: [18] The cantaloupe melon was introduced into Europe from Armenia. The place where the newcomer was first cultivated is said to have been a former summer estate of the popes near Rome called Cantaluppi – whence the name. Both the name and the fruit had made their way to France by the 15th century, but neither seems to have arrived permanently in England until the early 18th century.
cantankerous: [18] Cantankerous is a rather mysterious word. It first appears in the 1770s, and the earliest known reference to it is in Oliver Goldsmith’s She Stoops to Conquer 1772: ‘There’s not a more bitter cantanckerous road in all christendom’. Its origin is disputed: perhaps the likeliest source is Middle English contekour ‘brawler’, from contek ‘strife’, a borrowing from an unrecorded Anglo-Norman *contek, but an Irish origin has also been suggested, perhaps from Irish cannrán ‘strife, grumbling’ (another early user of the word was the Irish playwright Thomas Sheridan).
cantata: see chant
canteen: see cant
canter: [18] Canter comes from phrases such as Canterbury trot, Canterbury pace, etc, which were terms applied to the pace at which medieval pilgrims rode on their way by horse to the shrine of Thomas à Beckett at Canterbury in Kent (earliest references to it are from the 17th century, much later than the time of Chaucer’s pilgrims in the Middle Ages). The abbreviated from canter appeared in the 18th century, initially as a verb, and Samuel Johnson in his Dictionary 1755 defined Canterbury gallop as ‘the hand gallop of an ambling horse, commonly called a canter’.
canticle: see chant
canto: see chant
canton: see cant
canvas: [14] Canvas is related ultimately to hemp, for originally canvas was a cloth made from hemp. Latin cannabis (from the same source as English hemp) produced the Vulgar Latin derivative *cannapāceum, which passed into English via Old Northern French canevas. The verb canvass [16] appears to come from the noun: it originally meant ‘toss in a canvas sheet’, and this was perhaps the basis, via an intermediate ‘criticize roughly’, of the metaphorical sense ‘discuss thoroughly’. It is not clear where the political meaning ‘solicit votes’ came from.
=> cannabis, hemp
cap: [OE] Old English cæppa came from late Latin cappa ‘hood’, source also of English cape ‘cloak’. The late Latin word may well have come from Latin caput ‘head’, its underlying meaning thus being ‘head covering’.
=> cappuccino, chapel, chaperone, képi
capable: [16] In common with a wide range of other English words, from capture to recuperate, capable comes from Latin capere ‘take’, a relative of English heave. An adjective derived from the verb was Latin capāx ‘able to hold much’, from which English gets capacious [17] and capacity [15]. From its stem capāci- was formed the late Latin adjective capābilis, also originally ‘able to contain things’.

This meaning still survived when the word passed, via French capable, into English (‘They are almost capable of a bushel of wheat’, Thomas Wright, The Passions of the Mind 1601), but by the end of the 18th century it had died out, having passed into the current ‘able to, susceptible of’.

=> capacious, capacity, capture, chase, heave, recuperate
cape: There are two distinct words cape in English, but they may come from the same ultimate source. The earlier, ‘promontory, headland’ [14], comes via Old French cap and Provençal cap from Vulgar Latin *capo, a derivative of Latin caput ‘bead’. Cape ‘cloak’ [16] comes via French cape and Provençal capa from late Latin cappa ‘hood’, source of English cap; this too may be traceable back to Latin caput. (Other English descendants of caput include achieve, cadet, capital, captain, chapter, and chief; and cappa was also the precursor of chapel, chaperone, and cope).
=> achieve, cadet, capital, cappuccino, captain, chapel, chaperon, chapter, chief, escape
caper: Caper ‘jump about’ [16] and the edible caper [15] are two different words. The former is a shortening of capriole ‘leap’, now obsolete except as a technical term in horsemanship, which comes via early French capriole from Italian capriola, a derivative of the verb capriolare ‘leap’, which in turn was formed from capriolo ‘roebuck’; its ultimate source was Latin capreolus, a diminutive form of caper ‘goat’ (whence the English astrological term Capricorn, literally ‘goat’s horn’). (The French by-form cabrioler was the source of English cab.) Caper ‘edible bud’ came via French câpres and Latin capparis from Greek kápparis; the earliest English form was capres, but this came to be misinterpreted as a plural, and the -s was dropped from the singular in the 16th century.
=> cab, capricorn, capriole
capercaillie: [16] The name of the capercaillie, a very large species of grouse, means literally ‘horse of the woods’ in Scots Gaelic. The Gaelic form of the word is capalcoille, a compound formed from capall ‘horse’ (probably borrowed from Latin caballus ‘horse’, source of English cavalier) and coille ‘woods’.
=> cavalier
capillary: see dishevelled
capital: [13] Etymologically, capital is something that is at the top or ‘head’; it comes from Latin caput ‘head’. The various current English uses of the word reached us, however, by differing routes. The first to come was the adjective, which originally meant simply ‘of the head’ (Milton in Paradise lost wrote of the Serpent’s ‘capital bruise’, meaning the bruise to its head); this came via Old French capital from Latin capitālis, a derivative of caput.

The other senses of the adjective have derived from this: ‘capital punishment’, for instance, comes from the notion of a crime which, figuratively speaking, affects the head, or life. Its use as a noun dates from the 17th century: the immediate source of the financial sense is Italian capitale. The architectural capital ‘top of a column’ (as in ‘Corinthian capitals’) also comes from Latin caput, but in this case the intermediate form was the diminutive capitellum ‘little head’, which reached English in the 14th century via Old French capitel.

=> cattle, chapter, head
capitulate: see chapter