- heave[heave 词源字典]
- heave: [OE] Heave is part of a major family of English words that can trace their ancestry back to Indo-European *kap- ‘seize’. One of its Latin descendants was the verb capere ‘take’, which has given English capable, capacious, capstan, caption, captious, capture, case (for carrying things), cater, chase, prince, and many others.
To Germanic it gave *khabjan, from which come German heben ‘lift’ and English heave (which also originally meant ‘lift’; ‘throw’ and ‘haul’ are 16th-century developments). Haft [OE] (literally ‘something by which one seizes or holds on to something’) and heavy are derived from the same base as heave, and have may be related. Hefty  comes from heft ‘weight, heaviness’ , which was formed from heave on the analogy of such pairs as weave and weft.
=> capable, capacious, capstan, caption, captive, capture, case, cater, chase, haft, heavy, hefty, prince[heave etymology, heave origin, 英语词源]
- heave (v.)
- Old English hebban "to lift, raise; lift up, exalt" (class VI strong verb; past tense hof, past participle hafen), from Proto-Germanic *hafjan (cognates: Old Norse hefja, Dutch heffen, German heben, Gothic hafjan "to lift, raise"), from PIE *kap-yo-, from root *kap- "to grasp" (see capable).
Related to have (Old English habban "to hold, possess"). Meaning "to throw" is from 1590s. Nautical meaning "haul or pull" in any direction is from 1620s. Intransitive use from early 14c. as "be raised or forced up;" 1610s as "rise and fall with alternate motion." Sense of "retch, make an effort to vomit" is first attested c. 1600. Related: Heaved; heaving. Nautical heave-ho was a chant in lifting (c. 1300, hevelow).
- heave (n.)
- 1570s, from heave (v.). Meaning "a dismissal" is from 1944.