handicap

英 ['hændɪkæp] 美 ['hændɪ'kæp]
  • n. 障碍;不利条件,不利的因素
  • vt. 妨碍,阻碍;使不利
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handicap 让步赛,妨碍,残疾,生理缺陷

来自短语hand in cap,一种流行于17世纪的娱乐游戏,大致规则如下:甲乙双方有两件价值不同的物品,请丙当裁判来评估价差,然后补齐差价进行交换。同时,甲乙双方交纳保证金用手拿着放进帽子里,如果裁判丙估出的差价甲乙双方都同意的话,则他们进行物品交换,同时保证金归裁判,如果估出的差价甲乙双方都不同意的话,物品不交换,但是保证金也归裁判,如果一方同意另一方不同意,但是不同意的一方保证金归同意的一方,物品不交换,但可以避免更大程度损失。其中的关键在于裁判为使个人的利益最大化,势必要进行尽可能公正的估价,这样才会树立名声,别人才会找他,如果甲乙双方都认为裁判不公,则没人再找这个裁判。并由该游戏引申词义让步赛,如马赛,球赛,棋赛等等,以及用于指残疾人,生理缺陷的人,即需要让的人,含冒犯意。

handicap
handicap: [17] The word handicap originally denoted a sort of game of chance in which one person put up one of his or her personal possessions against an article belonging to someone else (for example one might match a gold watch against the other’s horse) and an umpire was appointed to adjudicate on the respective values of the articles. All three parties put their hands into a hat, together with a wager, and on hearing the umpire’s verdict the two opponents had to withdraw them in such a way as to indicate whether they wished to proceed with the game.

If they agreed, either in favour of proceeding or against, the umpire took the money; but if they disagreed, the one who wanted to proceed took it. It was the concealing of the hands in the hat that gave the game its name hand in cap, hand i’ cap, source of modern English handicap. In the 18th century the same term was applied to a sort of horse race between two horses, in which an umpire decided on a weight disadvantage to be imposed on a superior horse and again the owners of the horses signalled their assent to or dissent from his adjudication by the way in which they withdrew their hands from a hat.

Such a race became known as a handicap race, and in the 19th century the term handicap first broadened out to any contest in which inequalities are artificially evened out, and was eventually transferred to the ‘disadvantage’ imposed on superior contestants – whence the main modern meaning, ‘disadvantage, disability’.

handicap (n.)
1650s, from hand in cap, a game whereby two bettors would engage a neutral umpire to determine the odds in an unequal contest. The bettors would put their hands holding forfeit money into a hat or cap. The umpire would announce the odds and the bettors would withdraw their hands -- hands full meaning that they accepted the odds and the bet was on, hands empty meaning they did not accept the bet and were willing to forfeit the money. If one forfeited, then the money went to the other. If both agreed either on forfeiting or going ahead with the wager, then the umpire kept the money as payment. The custom, though not the name, is attested from 14c. ("Piers Plowman").

Reference to horse racing is 1754 (Handy-Cap Match), where the umpire decrees the superior horse should carry extra weight as a "handicap;" this led to sense of "encumbrance, disability" first recorded 1890. The main modern sense, "a mental or physical disability," is the last to develop, early 20c.
handicap (v.)
"equalize chances of competitors," 1852, but implied in the horse-race sense from mid-18c., from handicap (n.). Meaning "put at a disadvantage" is from 1864. Earliest verbal sense, now obsolete, was "to gain as in a wagering game" (1640s). Related: Handicapped; handicapping.
1. I see your handicap is down from 16 to 12.
我发现你的差点已从16杆降到了12杆。

来自柯林斯例句

2. Some hearing-impaired children may work harder to overcome their handicap.
一些有听障的儿童可能需要花更大的力气来克服这一缺陷。

来自柯林斯例句

3. His golf handicap hovered between 10 and 12.
他的高尔夫球差点一直在10杆到12杆之间徘徊。

来自柯林斯例句

4. Being a foreigner was not a handicap.
身为外国人并不是一个障碍。

来自柯林斯例句

5. His vacuity was a handicap in these debates.
在这些辩论中,思想贫乏是他的一个弱点。

来自柯林斯例句

[ handicap 造句 ]