- vt. 污损，弄脏；染污
- n. 狭谷；隘路
- vi. 以纵队前进
TEM8 IELTS GRE
de-, 向下。-fil, 踩，践踏，词源同foil, full(漂洗，洗衣)。引申词义玷污。defile 山中狭径
de-, 向下，强调。file, 线，文件。即如同一条线，一线天，用来指山中狭径。
- defile: Defile ‘make dirty’  and defile ‘narrow pass’  are distinct words in English. The former has a rather complex history. It was originally acquired in the 13th century as defoul, borrowed from Old French defouler ‘trample down, injure’; this was a compound verb formed from the prefix de- ‘down’ and fouler ‘tread’, which in turn goes back via Vulgar Latin *fullāre to Latin fullō ‘person who cleans and thickens cloth by stamping on it’, source of English fuller [OE].
In the 14th century defoul started to turn into defile under the influence of the synonymous (and now obsolete) befile [OE], a compound verb derived ultimately from the adjective foul. Defile ‘narrow pass’ was borrowed from French défilé, originally the past participle of défiler, a compound verb based on filer ‘march in a column’ (which is a close relative of English file).
=> fuller; file
- defile (v.)
- c. 1400, "to desecrate, profane;" mid-15c., "to make foul or dirty," alteration of earlier defoulen, from Old French defouler "trample down, violate," also "ill-treat, dishonor," from de- "down" (see de-) + foler "to tread," from Latin fullo "person who cleans and thickens cloth by stamping on it" (see foil (v.)).
The alteration (or re-formation) in English is from influence of Middle English filen (v.) "to render foul; make unclean or impure," literal and figurative, from Old English fylen (trans.), related to Old English fulian (intrans.) "to become foul, rot," from the source of foul (adj.). Compare befoul, which also had a parallel form befilen. Related: Defiled; defiling.
- defile (n.)
- "narrow passage," 1640s, especially in a military sense, "a narrow passage down which troops can march only in single file," from French défilé, noun use of past participle of défiler "march by files" (17c.), from de- "off" (see de-) + file "row," from Latin filum "thread" (see file (v.1)). The verb in this sense is 1705, from French défiler.
- 1. The Agheila defile was kernel of the situation.
- 2. The troops had to defile through the pass.
- 3. Who are these men who defile the grassy borders of our roads and lanes.
- 4. Presently this defile took a turn, and a lovely sight unfolded itself to my eyes.
- 不一会儿,小路转了个弯, 一派美丽的景色展现在我的眼前.
- 5. Dogs defile the park.
[ defile 造句 ]